The monogynous hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna is a native shrub or small tree. It gives rhythm to our landscapes by playing an important role in the biodiversity of small fauna. Extremely tolerant and useful in hedges, it supports pollution, maritime exposure as well as neglect.
Scientific N. Crataegus monogyna
Typesmall tree flowers
Plant and cultivate
Hardiness very rustic, up to -29C
Exposition sunny partial shade
Acidity very acidic very basic
Humidity cool fairly dry
useen haie dfensive, en isol, en bonsa
Multiplicationsowing, cuttings, grafting
Cutprune after flowering
Sensitivity host plant of bacterial fire
Crataegus monogyna, commonly called 1-hawthorn style, monogynous hawthorn or even noble thorn is a shrub or one small deciduous tree belonging to the family Rosaceae. The noble thorn is one of our 2 species of hawthorn native. Very long-lived, it is able to live more than 500 years, the hawthorn is found everywhere in France in open environments: embankments, hedges, edges, wasteland.. and more widely in Europe as far as Siberia.
Despite that sensitivity to fire blight (which is becoming rare), common hawthorn is a good species local area that we should use more in our hedges: dense, defensive and promoting biodiversity. A shrub from a producer will be guaranteed fire blight free.
Description of the hawthorn to a style
Crataegus monogyna forms a small tree or shrub 4 to 10 m high. The trunk can be single with dark, scaly bark, but is sometimes able to shed stump.
The twigs are ash gray, smooth, thorny. The leaves are alternate about 5 cm, with a 3 cm blade divided into 3 to 5 incised and toothed lobes, light green above and more glaucous on the reverse.
Flowering occurs in May. Usually plentiful and pretty, it is sometimes inconvenient with its pleasant scent at first, but then smells worse.
The White flowers with 5 very round petals are gathered in a bouquet on short branches.
They are fertilized by insects and then produce cloves: small ovoid fruits, 1 cm long, red, containing a few seeds; they are dispersed by birds that feed on them.
How to differentiate monogynous hawthorn from thorny hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) ?
The common hawthorn has leaves whose base is angular (almost straight edges) and quite deeply lobed.
Thorny hawthorn with rounded base leaves and shallow lobed blade. The small teeth on the edge of the leaf are more regular.
The fleur of monogynous hawthorn shows only one style. That of the thorny hawthorn shows 2 or 3 styles.
How to grow and use Common Hawthorn?
Shrub moderate growth, Crataegus monogyna is extremely complacent with the gardener. Installed in the garden in autumn or spring, it accepts any soil, from very acidic to very basic (limestone), except those that are too poor such as peaty soils. The hawthorn to a style requires a exposition sunny or partial shade. It is resistant to drought as well as to cool or too compact soils, resistant to atmospheric pollution and also grows by the sea.
Although it can be used in beautifully shaped small tree, she is mainly used as a free hedge, defensive or mixed, sometimes in the form ‘Stricta’, therefore narrower.
In addition, the nomogynous hawthorn accepts all kinds of sizes, capable even of renewing itself after a severe coppicing.
Crataegus monogyne, is excellent for maintenance of biodiversity : in insects alone, there are 149 species that have fed or lodged there. Its fruits are a source of food for some birds and small mammals, but also the insects that inhabit them. In addition, the dense branching makes the hawthorn even more welcoming to nesting birds.
Other uses of hawthorn:
The young leafy stems are sometimes eaten in salads, they have a little nutty taste.
Its wood is very hard. They can be made into sturdy little tools.
Medlar or pear can be grafted onto a hawthorn.
The monogynous hawthorn is a medicinal plant: the herbal teas of hawthorn leaves are regulators of the tension, it is a tonicardiac.
Species and varieties of Crataegus
The genus includes more than 200 species
- Crataegus laevigata, 2-style hawthorn
- Crataegus azarolus, the azerolier
- Crataegus x prunifolia ‘Splendens’, Hawthorn
Source: Au Jardin, conseils en jardinage by www.aujardin.info.
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