We measure consumption, range and charge for our three tested electric cars – Jaguar I-Pace, Polestar 2 and Volvo XC40 P8.
CONSUMPTION AND RANGE
For several years we have carried out practical range tests with electric cars. Sometimes run until they stop (and maybe lock and have to be salvaged), but all the more often until the rangefinder shows zero. But how far a certain electric car goes depends on the consumption and it in turn depends very much on how fast the car is driven. Without a private oval track, it will be difficult to repeat the speed between different tests. Within one and the same test, it will be comparable, but still with some challenges to maintain the same average speed for cars that go very different distances. In order not to stand along the road, the speed tends to drop significantly at the end. The measurement very much gets the character “there and then”.
Can you do it any other way ?, we asked ourselves. Do you readers perhaps have a better benefit from how much the cars pull and thus how far they go at different speeds? When the range is interesting in real life, it is almost always about longer journeys and thus about higher speeds. Why not report how far the cars go if you keep 90 or 120 km / h? Said and done. In addition, we also add test consumption and the corresponding range as a comparison. This mixed – and slower – driving along the test section also includes, in addition to some motorways, long sections at speeds of 30–80 km / h, as well as accelerations and decelerations.
External circumstances also affect. Therefore, we report temperature, wind strength and wind direction as well as any precipitation at the time of measurement. Speed is measured with GPS. The cars’ “normal” driving programs and tire pressures are used – no eco-variants.
VOLVO IS THE THIRSTEST, JAGUAR GOES THE FAREST
Large battery and low air resistance are the recipe if you want to drive far between charges. Jaguar has both and also comes farthest regardless of whether we take into account the test consumption or what the cars pull at 90 and 120 km / h respectively.
At the other end we find Volvo.
This is how the air resistance between the three cars differs:
Jaguar: Cd (0,29) x frontarea (i.u.) m2 = i.u.
Polestar: Cd (0,278) x frontarea (2,31) m2 = 0,64.
Volvo: Cd (0,34–0,37) x frontarea (2,56) m2 = 0,87–0,95.
It is especially interesting to compare the cousins with the same driveline. Volvo thus has both the shape (Cd) and the front area (= cross-sectional area) against it, which each contributes to creating a higher air resistance than for Polestar. Volvo also weighs 47 kilos more and pulls more than Polestar already in city speeds, we also noted (despite the fact that the heat pump is only missing in Polestar). The faster it goes, the more the air resistance comes into play. Volvo increases its consumption more than Polestar when the speed is increased from 90 to 120 km / h both in percent and kilowatt hours. However, we are surprised that the difference here is not greater than it is, but the measurement was made in rainy weather. Standing water here and there gives poorer repeatability and the numbers should be taken more as an indication than absolute values.
Temperature: 4 ° C, wind (villages): 4 (8) m / s, wind direction: straight tailwind, straight headwind, road conditions: rain, standing water
COMMERCIAL CAR CALCULATION
|Brand / Model||Jaguar I-Pace|
Recharge P8 AWD
|Fuel / technology||He||He||He||Laddhybrid|
|List price (kr)||799 900||669 000||699 000||516 000|
|Climate bonus (kr)||60 000||60 000||60 000||26 442|
|Calculation price (kr)||635 913||535 410||562 110||432 798|
|Benefit value (SEK)||55 498||61 423||58 937||58 347|
|BUSINESS CALCULATION SEK / MONTH|
|TCO (excl. Fuel)||10 553||9 148||9 498||8 445|
|Fuel compensation (SEK)||1 188||1 188||1 188||1 188|
|Social security contributions (SEK)||1 448||1 603||1 538||1 523|
|Total SEK / month||13 189||11 939||12 224||11 156|
|DRIVER CALCULATION SEK / MONTH|
|Gross benefit value||4 625||5 119||4 911||4 862|
|Net benefit value (50% tax)||2 312||2 559||2 456||2 431|
|Fuel consumption l / mil (kWh)||2,10||2,10||2,20||0,20|
|Fuel price, SEK / l (kWh)||1,50||1,50||1,50||15|
|Fuel cost private driving||394||394||413||375|
|Fuel cost service driving||-794||-794||-776||-813|
|Total SEK / month||1 912||2 159||2 093||1 993|
|TCO 36 months, 1500 km in service, 1500 km private, 4% interest|
|Source: Ynnor AB|
MANY COMPANIES (ALMOST ALL) …
is considering or is switching its fleet to more electrified cars. The reasons are many, but most emphasize environmental reasons. It is still the case that you have a fear of reach at the companies, perhaps not so much that the cars will be left with an empty battery, but how to be able to charge them at the same time as you need to use them.
If all company car drivers lived in their own villa with a charging box installed or in an apartment with access to charging at night, when the car is not in use, there would have been no problems. But it does far from everyone so then you hesitate on pure electric cars and take the next best thing – charging hybrids. The transitional solution charging hybrids will last longer than we expected.
• In addition, certain environmental benefits disappear for tax purposes.
• The bonus is reduced in the Bonus malus system for those who intend to buy a charging hybrid.
• The discount of SEK 10,000 on the benefit value for green cars disappears at the turn of the year.
• The charging box with installation is no longer counted as an accessory (which did not increase the benefit value of the car).
• An increase in the benefit value of company cars has been announced on 1 July next year, which may lead to a reduction in the number of company cars because it will be too expensive for companies and it is the companies that buy green cars in the first place.
Mikael Mesch, Consultant Ynnor AB
WHICH CHARGES BEST IN TRION?
Since Jaguar has now also upgraded its onboard charger from single- to three-phase, all three test cars with a maximum power of 11 kW charge at home in a three-phase charging box. Volvo states that from empty to full battery then it takes 7.5 hours. Polestar says “up to eight hours” (but it probably takes exactly as long as for Volvo) and Jaguar, which has a slightly larger battery, states 8.6 hours – a cut of 1.5 hours compared to the previous single-phase cars.
But on the long journey, it is instead fast charging that applies. Which can handle DC charging best?
On paper, Polestar and Volvo have a clear advantage with a stated maximum power of 150 kW compared to the Jaguars 100. But what does it look like in reality? We went to the same Ionity station as in previous tests, they guarantee a full 350 kW – so it will be the cars that set the limit.
As usual, we turn the charging station into the cars’ navigation system so that they have the chance to recondition, ie prepare, their batteries for the charge to come. We arrive with the battery level below ten percent and then measure to 90 percent.
Jaguar is the fastest out of the starting blocks and reaches 99 kW, almost its maximum level, directly at ten percent charge. With their 70 and 87 kW, respectively, Polestar and Volvo seem more taken by the fact that the outside temperature is only five degrees. Then they drive a Jaguar already at 20 percent charge. But only to make a dip at 30 percent, just at the same time as Jaguar is outperforming (106 kW!).
This effort from the Englishman in combination with the fact that neither Polestar nor Volvo is close to their 150 kW makes the first half of the match be unexpectedly even, but with Volvo first. On paper, there is no remnant of the cousin cars’ charging power during the second half. The entire exercise takes 64 minutes for the winner Volvo and a similar 68 minutes for Polestar. Jaguar manages to wedge itself in between, and it is clear that Polestar’s and Volvo’s “150 kW” are not very valuable in practice compared to Jaguar’s “100 kW”, at least at plus five degrees!
The manufacturers are careful to point out that the outside temperature can strongly affect the charging capacity. We can clearly illustrate this here because in the case of Polestar 2 we happen to have exactly the same test car that we also charged at a 350 kW station last autumn – although when it was twelve degrees warmer (17 degrees). See the dashed line. Then the battery was comfortable with receiving a full 135 kW at ten percent, that is 65 kW more and almost a doubling! From there and up to 30 percent, the autumn survey has a large advantage over the winter survey. When the battery has reached half full, the temperature and other things in the battery have probably reached the same level regardless of the circumstances at the beginning of the charge, whereupon the differences from there become marginal.
Jaguar does not care about the cool outside temperature but settles to the max immediately. Polestar and Volvo need to feel for. They will soon be driving a Jaguar, but the elimination will not take place as they are always far from their stated 150 kW (50 kW more than Jaguar). From 50 percent, all three charge equally on average. Polestar and Volvo make a small effort around 70 percent, but Jaguar compensates by enduring better between 80 and 90 percent.
All three need just over an hour to charge from ten to 90 percent. As usual, the first half (10-50 percent) of the battery charges in about half the time versus the second half (50-90 percent). A little more so for Polestar and Volvo, a little less so, ie more evenly distributed, for Jaguar.
HOW FAR DO YOU GET AFTER A CERTAIN TIME OF CHARGING?
The charging time for a given number of kilowatt hours does not say everything about how long you have to wait at the charging station. A low consumption can compensate for a lower charging speed. The interesting thing is in practice how many kilometers you charge per minute. It varies for all cars depending on the speed you intend to keep then. Here we therefore report curves for 90 and 120 km / h as well as for the mixed test consumption.
As we in this test have no huge differences in consumption, and even less in terms of charging capacity, this time there will never be any major differences to speak of.
Say we intend to keep 90 km / h after charging. After 30 minutes at the pole, Jaguar has 16.2 new miles at its disposal while Polestar, which is the best here, has 18.3 new miles – an affordable difference. If you stand for another 30 minutes, Jaguar will catch up and both have about 250 km. Volvo, which loses a little more charge than the others at the end, has got 20 miles less after this hour. Compared to Polestar mostly because it pulls a bit more.
In the diagram for 120 km / h we see the same scenario. Polestar refuels new kilometers slightly faster than Jaguar and Volvo, which are followed almost exactly. If you have to almost fill the battery and charge for up to 45-60 minutes, the Jaguar will catch up with Polestar thanks to better charging at the end, while Volvo instead falls away from something in the same situation.
Jaguar’s test consumption was lower than Polestar’s, which directly results in longer charging stops. After 40 minutes there is no difference, but if you charge for another 20 minutes, the Jaguar can drive just over 210 km and the other two barely 24.
Only after a quarter of an hour can you see a mile difference between the best (Polestar) and worst (Jaguar) car. The difference is greatest after three-quarters, but only just over 20 km.
Even smaller differences than in the 90s curve. Everyone reaches 15 new miles after 40 minutes. Jaguar up to 16.5.
Incredibly smooth for up to 40 minutes. But Jaguar’s better charge at the end gives 3.5 miles extra after an hour at the charging post.
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