Energy saving with the thermal coat
The theme of the energy saving is now one of the main problems to be solved on a global scale in the construction sector.
To meet this need, several have been studied system of thermal insulation , among which the most common is represented by thermal coat to be applied mainly to the external facades of buildings.
Under the housing, this intervention represents an effective way to save energy at home, isolating the perimeter walls of the house.
In this way it is possible to cool in the summer and heat in the winter reducing at most i consumption of energy, taking into account that this operation must also be completed with replacement or the thermal improvement of the fixtures existing.
In addition to the insulating function, the outer coat also performs an important function of protection of the external walls, subtracting the same from the aggressions of atmospheric agents.
Thermal insulation and distances between buildings
From an operational point of view, the intervention of external thermal insulation always involves a increase in thickness of the original wall, in relation to the type of insulation used.
This increase in some cases can raise problems violation of urban planning indexes, relating to the homogeneous area in which the property falls.
With sentence N.11845 of June 18, 2020, the Court of Cassation established that the increase in volume for the purposes of distances it does not represent a technical volume.
Therefore, they go respect the distances between buildings envisaged by the regulations in force at the time of construction, taking into account the fact that thermal insulation can be achieved alternatively also in the form of inner coat.
Thermal cladding notwithstanding the regulations on distances between buildings
However, the Court has clarified that by way of derogation from these rules, referring to article 14 of Legislative Decree no. 102/2014, paragraph 7 and article 11 of Legislative Decree no. 115 of 2008, is possible operate the isolation intervention on condition that it guarantees a reduction of 10% of limits of thermal transmittance.
In order to carry out a thermal insulation intervention from the outside, it is necessary to present a Wake to the Municipality where the building to be insulated is located, by a qualified technician, complete with certification of the work to be carried out.
This practice provides for tacit consent. Therefore, if from the date of submission you do not receive a response from the municipal administration within 30 days, the permit is considered granted implicitly. As a result, work can begin.
Insulating historical buildings complex problem
For buildings under the protection of Cultural Heritage, the procedure becomes more complex not only from the bureaucratic point of view, but above all from the operational one.
Indeed, the thermal insulation of a building historical it certainly cannot be achieved by superimposing insulating panels on a prestigious facade, much less proceeding from the inside, as on the internal walls there are stuccos, frescoes, and various decorative works, to be preserved and to preserve.
It is therefore understandable that there is no procedure standard to isolate buildings, especially historical ones, for those cases in which the conditions of protection of the Property allow it. A variety of new very performing products, including system thin thermoreflective dry mounted on special profiles, or single-layer thermo-plaster based on fit.
Thermal coat with modern materials
In operationally favorable situations it is possible to apply stratifications with panels insulators of different materials.
Among these I can mention polymeric foams, rock wool, fiberglass, wood fiber, cork, etc.
To complete everything, the possibility of using brick slats or natural stone coverings should not be overlooked.
However, much needs to be done caution when different materials with very homogeneous and thermohygrometric characteristics are put together different.
These couplings, if not studied with care and in-depth, starting from the cognitive level of the original stratifications of the walls to be insulated, can frustrate the outcome of the intervention, also causing damage to the underlying existing structure.
The importance of the thickness of the walls
However, it is always good to remember that if it is not possible to intervene from the outside, nor from the inside, the remarkable thickness of the ancient walls and their high mass, contribute thanks to inertia and thermal displacement a to mitigate partly the absence of isolation.
This can however be improved by intervening on the fixtures, on the covers and in the basement rooms.
When the insulation intervention concerns buildings in condominium it is necessary to add to the usual documentation to produce the SCIA, also the act of consent of condominiums, represented by the qualified majority as per law.
This necessity derives from the fact that the intervention is carried out on common walls. Therefore, each condominium will have to contribute by virtue of the condominium share competent property.
On the basis of the Civil Code, resolutions approved with a number of votes representing the majority of those attending the condominium assembly and at least half of the value of the building.
Thermal coat with reduced thickness materials
After having described the procedures for starting a thermal insulation intervention on a building, I would like to focus on the techniques of execution intervention.
I would like to give special attention to new insulating materials, with whom it is increasingly possible reduce thicknesses without reducing the insulating capacity.
Among the most innovative products, on the market we find thin sheets of rock fiber and aerogel, whose conductivity thermal λ is equal to λ 0.019 W / m ° K, useful for interventions to be carried out at theindoor.
For theexternal it is possible to use panels with a silicon gel vacuum core, whose thermal conductivity λ is equal to 0.007 W / m ° K, which allows with salt 3 cm thickness of insulation, to obtain an insulation comparable to a traditional 15 cm fiberglass panel.
Thermal insulation: the importance of good execution
After having illustrated the characteristics of the new insulating products, in order to create thermal coats even with reduced thicknesses, I want to focus on the phases executive of a thermal coat .
Often there are mistakes of execution that they can to compromise the effectiveness of the thermal insulation intervention.
As everyone will know by now, basically the execution of a thermal coat is nothing more than a lining of insulating material with which to cover the perimeter walls of a building.
This lining consists of panels rectangular in shape whose thickness is a consequence of the type of insulation to be achieved, in relation to the intrinsic and extrinsic conditions of the building from a thermal point of view.
The laying of these panels is similar to that of sheet walls, i.e. staggered joints, with convexes between one panel and another, after preparation of the back of the panel by applying a suitable gripping material.
Thermal insulation the importance of the details during the installation phase
Apparently, this method seems to be extremely simple and without difficulties. Unfortunately, however, often they are neglected some details important, due to a series of critical issues following the intervention.
One of the mistakes more common is represented by the replacement of non-certified materials, inside the wall made with certified materials, which is not given much importance.
Similarly, it is important to employ intact panels and undamaged, which have been carefully stored in a protected site.
The weather conditions intervention are also important for the success of the intervention. In fact, it is a good rule not to proceed if the temperature drops below 5 ° C or rises above 30 ° C.
Before installing the panels on the underlying wall, the consistency of the substrate and its degree of humidity, to avoid that the panels are not sufficiently anchored.
Assemble with suitable methods and products
In this regard, I recall that the glue must be arranged either perimetralmente to the panel and in at least three parts within it. This is in order to avoid detachment due to underlying air masses.
The correct installation of the panels must be performed starting from the bottom upwards in staggered courses, with escapes less than 5 mm. Having to make thicknesses superior for technical reasons in some part of the wall, the gaps must be filled with insulation material same kind of that of the panels, avoiding filling the joints with adhesive mortar or, worse still, leaving them dry.
For the stage of tassellatura, it is necessary to verify the good the press and hardening of the adhesive, afterwards, after laying the anchors, the base plaster on which the reinforcement mesh is to be applied will be applied, avoiding drowning it in the plaster layer.
Finally, a lot of attention must be paid to choice the type of finishing plaster, which must be chosen in relation to indications of the certified Thermal Insulation System used, remember that making a mistake in the grain or thickness of the plaster is a serious error, which can lead to cracking of the layer.
Thermal cladding and tax breaks
At the conclusion of the above, I want to remember that the Budget Law 2021 predicted the reconfirm of the eco-bonus for the whole year 2021, until 31 December.
This represents a big one opportunity to face the retraining energy of buildings, benefiting from a notable state contribution.
It is useful to remember how the value of a building increases significantly following this type of intervention, as can be easily found by analyzing the deeds of sale of real estate.
Source: LAVORINCASA.it by www.lavorincasa.it.
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