The Himalayas are arched over 2,400 km, from northern Pakistan to the west (some include the Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), through China and Tibet, to northern India, Nepal, Bhutan and northern Burma. In each of these countries, This huge mountain range is called by a different name.
How is the Himalayan ridge formed?
The Himalayas are among the most “young” and “active” on earth. The mountains continue to rise, and at the same time erode in the processes of weathering. Glaciers are melting, lakes are forming, rivers and streams are changing their course, and the power that stands is still and seemingly quiet, but actually sizzling – above and below the surface.
This fascinating fact is related to the story of the formation of the Himalayas. Epic story. It basically depends on who you ask and which version you choose to side with.
According to the Mahabharata, one of the two most important epics of India, the formation of the Himalayas is a tragic and difficult event.
A story that was, so it was: at the beginning of the creation period, on the banks of the huge sea, a pair of seagulls tried in vain to nest. Every year the female laid eggs, but the sea swept them away. The seagulls’ hearts were broken and in their despair, they turned to God for help and there was one who lived on the shore of the sea. And there was one who felt sorry for them, opened his mouth wide and swallowed the sea in one big sip. Where the sea used to be, Mother Earth has now been exposed. And there he was exhausted from swallowing such a wide sea, lay down to rest and sank into a deep sleep. The terrible demon Hirniaksha lurking nearby, seized the opportunity and attacked the defenseless Mother Earth with such brutality, until her ribs were broken and turned up. The broken ribs of the earth, rising towards the sky, formed the vast Himalayan mountains.
A more scientific and perhaps no less tragic story, will attribute the immense uplift of the Himalayas, to the result of a huge “car accident” that occurred about 250 million years ago.
At that time there was only one large continent in the world – the Pangea continent. A continent, which would later begin to disintegrate and create the same seven continents we know today. At the beginning of its disintegration, about two hundred and fifty million years ago, the southern plateau cut off what is now the Indian subcontinent, embarked on a long journey north across the great ocean at a “meteoric” rate of 15 cm per year and collided with the Eurasian continent. Of the Himalayan ridges. The “Snow Residence” in Sanskrit (ancient Indian).
This “road accident” occurred only about ten million years ago and its “after market” is still alive and well, as the Indian calendar continues to move north at a rate of 2 cm per year while pushing the Himalayan ridge. As a result, the Himalayas continue to rise by half a centimeter. Every year.
It is estimated that in the next ten million years India is expected to continue moving north. This movement causes seismic instability in the area and severe earthquakes. The most recent and one of the most difficult, occurred in Nepal in 2015.
This year, Nepal was hit by an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale. Over nine thousand people were killed. Entire villages were destroyed. Tens of thousands were injured and millions needed shelter and medical care.
Many ancient temples and cities, recognized as rare UNESCO heritage sites, have been destroyed. Most of them are still supported by scaffolding made of bamboo and under lazy renovations.
The earthquake caused avalanches in the Himalayas that took heavy tolls. Dozens of backpackers were killed on the mountain and hundreds were rescued by the Indian army.
Following the earthquake, a severe phenomenon was discovered in Nepal. Gangs from India infiltrated the country and “bought” children who survived the earthquake to serve in the homes of wealthy British families. Some are only ten years old and priced at $ 7,500 on the black market.
100 years of climbing Everest
How did it happen that the summit of the highest mountain in the world, which for generations was called Chumu-Longma (Tibetan Mother of the World) and Nepali – Sagaramata (the mountain with its head in the clouds), changed its name to Everest?
Everest was first identified as the highest mountain in the world in the mid-19th century, as part of a comprehensive British effort to map the Himalayas. As a tribute and tribute, the name of the Tibetan mountain was changed in honor of the geographer Sir George Everest, who was the chief surveyor of India. Residents of the area resented it, but the ease with which the British conquered the world during the colonial period and the way they played the world as a monopoly game in which everyone else takes, does not even buy, left the angry, faded and faded local voice. Interestingly, Everest himself, who was still alive at the time, objected to this, claiming that Hindi speakers in India could not pronounce the name. Everest himself, never climbed the mountain. Moreover, he did not even watch it from a distance and did not engage in mapping the mountain or the area.
This mountain, which rose above the clouds, the abode of the Hindu and Tibetan gods, like Olympus – the abode of the Greek gods, became a kind of Tower of Babel. A kind of ladder through which man tried to touch the sky. To push the limits of his human abilities towards the inconceivable.
Beginning in the 1920s, man tried to conquer the mountain. These attempts have taken heavy tolls and human lives. Each climbing attempt included a multi-participant delegation. Equipment that has become more sophisticated over the years. Every climbing attempt that started from the base of the mountain towards the summit, lasted for over a month.
They first managed to reach the summit of Everest, which is 8,848 meters high, seventy years ago.
In 1953, after thirty years of failed attempts, another British climbing expedition set out. The selection of participants was not easy and at the back of their minds was a French team that also wanted to win the crown. The delegation included five British mountaineers who accompanied a group of 150 firefighters. (Sharfa are an ethnic group that migrated from Mongolia and settled in the Himalayan range in Nepal. For backpackers and hikers, the word “Sharfa” has become synonymous with mountain guides and claim to have adapted to resistance to breathing difficulties and altitude sickness).
The delegation arrived on April 12 at the base camp at the foot of the mountain, at an altitude of just over 5,000 meters. Later in the climb they set up a few more intermediate camps at higher altitudes. Almost a month after the start of the climb, two of the delegation left the highest camp for the first attempt to climb to the summit, but were stopped at an altitude of about 8,750 meters and had to retreat due to fatigue and malfunctions in their oxygen tanks. The next day the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and the son of the fire Tenzing Norgay went out for the second attempt. For the first time in the history of mountaineering, they managed to ascend to the summit. A peak that might be worth noting, because its area, the apex of the mountain, is the size of a dining table only…
In this narrow area at the top of the world, Hillary and Tenzing stayed for a short time of only about a quarter of an hour. During this time, they buried a small cross in the snow, candy and Hillary photographed Tenzing. Hillary himself was not photographed on the mountain, as his partner did not know how to operate a camera and the “selfie” was not yet born…
The mission was crowned a success!
The news of the resounding achievement came to London on a particularly solemn day and with perfect timing – exactly on the day Queen Elizabeth II was crowned. Hillary won the title of nobility for the honor he bestowed on the United Kingdom and Tenzing received a medal and congratulations… ..
Immigrating to Everest remains a not-so-simple but very popular challenge even today. Since the summit of Everest was first conquered, 5,789 people have been able to reach the summit. More than three hundred people died on its slopes.
Since 2008, a climbing expedition has been held every year, with the aim of clearing the mountain of the much debris left there by the climbers and extracting the frozen and well-preserved bodies of the mountain victims. About a hundred bodies were still left in the mountain crevices without the ability to extract them, some of them even became landmarks for the climbers. In 2014, the Nepalese government announced that each climber would be required to bring back eight kilograms of garbage from the mountain, in addition to his personal waste.
Climbing the Himalayas has now become Nepal’s most lucrative tourism industry. It is an important economic resource for the country which is considered one of the ten poorest countries in the world.
Until recently, the cost of each visa to climb Everest was $ 11,000, but after the last deadly climbing season in 2019, in which eighteen people were killed on the way to the summit, the demand has changed. From now on, climbers who want to climb the mountain will first have to deal with another mountain in Nepal. A lower mountain, at an altitude of only 6,500 meters. The fee they will have to pay will skyrocket to at least thirty-five thousand dollars.
This “gold mine” has emptied and disappeared in the last year. The year 2020-2021 marked as the most desolate year in the history of the mountain, as even in Everest there was an eruption of corona.
This year, Nepal has reached a stage where more than ten thousand people are infected a day. Two out of three tests done came out positive. Climbers who started coughing went down, were tested and found to be sick in Corona.
The one who was “stressed” by this fact the most, was actually the one responsible for spreading the corona virus around the world. China came under pressure for the virus to return to it through the summit of Everest and sent 8,848-meter-high climbing guides to mark a line that would separate climbers from its side from climbers from Nepal.
Despite the climbing and exploration expeditions in the area, the beating heart of the Himalayas remains impenetrable, even for those who dare to cross the boundaries of civilization into the wilds of nature. Many districts in the Himalayas are inaccessible to travelers and human foot has not yet trodden them.
Limor Tzadok – Phototherapist, Lacanian psychoanalyst and movement, expression and creation therapist. lecturer. A veteran and certified world-class tour guide and tour guide. Specializing in guiding tours in Southeast Asia since 1991.
Founder and partner in the project “In the way of our photography“With the photography guide Amit Aloni.
Map of the Himalayas in Nepal
Source: כתבות – מסע אחר by www.masa.co.il.
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