Friends-shipbuilders, veterans of the submarine fleet and naval sailors, who now serve on the nuclear submarine from the “malachite box”, congratulate Radiy Anatolyevich Shmakov, designer and chief designer of Project 671 RTM “Shchuka” multipurpose submarines, on his 90th birthday.
He was born in Novosibirsk, left without a father at the age of five, graduated from high school with a gold medal and did not become a student at the Moscow Aviation Institute, only because in 1948 there was no room in the dormitory at the Moscow Aviation Institute. As a result, the son of the “enemy of the people” Radiy Shmakov a year after Stalin’s death received a diploma with honors from the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute. And for seven decades, according to him, he never regretted that once and for all he linked his life with the creation of submarines and the development of special weapons for them.
– I studied well for all five years, received my diploma with honors, – admitted Radiy Anatolyevich in one of the TV programs. – I had the opportunity to choose any enterprise, since then young specialists were distributed according to the ministry’s vouchers. The diploma wrote about a submarine – a minelayer. And I decided to go to work in the design bureau, which was already known then, and is now called “Rubin”. There he agreed to be distributed. However, a ticket from the ministry came to SKB-143 unknown to me. It had just emerged, and I, without knowing it, immediately got to the forefront – where the first Soviet nuclear submarine was created.
According to the general director of the St. Petersburg MBM “Malakhit” Vladimir Dorofeev, a graduate and the same age as the Leningrad “shipbuilding” (now it is the St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, the forge of Russian marine engineering personnel) Radiy Anatolyevich Shmakov has been working successfully and fruitfully since 1954. our office “.
Participated in the creation of the very first in the USSR nuclear submarine K-3 and went to its tests at sea. And then, as a representative of the SKB-143 design department and the chief designer of experimental diesel-electric submarines (projects 613RV, 633RV, 633KS), he worked out and implemented anti-submarine complexes “Vyuga”, “Waterfall”, “Wind”, “Shkval” on serial nuclear submarines. … According to Shmakov himself, it took almost twenty years of his life.
In 1981, for the creation and development of new complexes of anti-submarine weapons, Radiy Shmakov and a group of his colleagues were awarded the USSR State Prize. And in the meantime he was immersed in solving another problem – putting into service the submarines of the Granat complex with long-range cruise missiles.
Museum and archives of SPMBM “Malakhit” immediately come to life when designer R.A. Shmakov. Photo: Alexander Emelianenkov
Working in close contact with outstanding designers and managers of SKB-143 Peregudov, Isanin, Rusanov, Chernyshov taught the highest responsibility for the assigned work. And if you volunteered yourself – keep your answer in full …
– In 1984, the board of the USSR Ministry of Justice approved me as the chief designer of the second generation boats 671RT and its best model – 671RTM. The general designer and head of the bureau was then Georgy Nikolaevich Chernyshov, and all projects were built under his general leadership. He was my teacher. He saw and knew me from the job when I was doing a lot of weapons. Apparently, this was decisive for him. And he appointed me as the chief designer …
It was Shmakov who, as the chief designer, was entrusted with the direction of modernization and maintenance in service of perhaps the largest series of second-generation nuclear submarines 671RT, 671RTM and 671RTMK “Shchuka”. For twenty years at the Krasnoye Sormovo Production Association in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), at the Leningrad Admiralty Association and at the plant named after V.I. Lenin Komsomol in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in this line was built 33 nuclear submarines. Then the main thing was achieved: in terms of the level of underwater noise and their own means of detection, the Soviet multipurpose nuclear submarines approached American counterparts of the Los Angeles type.
– The lead boat 671RTM was the third modification of the 671 project, – Radiy Anatolyevich clarifies and emphasizes in his own way. – There were 26 such units built: thirteen – at the plant. Lenin Komsomol, the same number – in the Admiralty Association in Leningrad. I had the good fortune to work with the “Admiralty” on five boats. The last of them was passed in the 92nd. At that time, they absorbed our best achievements …
In the same interview, the designer admitted that RTM had a short life. The boats, he said, are designed in such a way that in 5-7 years they should be scheduled for repair, then for repair with modernization. Unfortunately, it turned out differently: many nuclear submarines did not wait for scheduled repairs and went to wear and tear. As a result, they served faithfully for 12 years from the date of delivery, and this is only half of the appointed term. And they were written off only because our state did not have the money to repair them …
And in the navy, these ships were loved – for their high performance, reliability, good habitability, and they were proud of the service on them. In the 80s and early 90s, underwater hunters of this series were the main hope for our Navy. And also, which is no less important, a support and base for the transition to third-generation ships. This baton – together with two numbers in the designation of the project – was taken over by nuclear submarines of the 971 Shchuka-B series, designed in the same Malakhit …
– In my understanding, this is a continuation of the RTM series, but already on the “Bars”. And in them we have already reached parity with the Americans, and maybe even surpassed in noise reduction. This is recognized by both our and foreign specialists, – summed up Radiy Anatolyevich.
A novelty from Malachite is a mock-up of the P-705B submarine with an air-independent power plant. Photo: Alexander Emelianenkov
For more than twenty years, chief designer Shmakov headed the Council of Inventors and Rationalizers of SPMBM “Malakhit”. And in 1997 he himself became a laureate of the prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology.
In recent years, the main business of Radiy Anatolyevich has become the history of the domestic submarine fleet, nuclear submarine shipbuilding, the history and role of the Malakhit design bureau in all this. He has written dozens of articles and several monographs, personally and in co-authorship with colleagues. Through his efforts as editor-in-chief, almost three dozen books in the series “Submarine shipbuilding: past, present, future” have been prepared and published.
And the museum, which was created in MBM “Malachite”, without it, of course, is not a museum. Because there is no person more experienced, competent and with an excellent memory for names, events and faces than Radiy Anatolyevich Shmakov. Live encyclopedia “Malachite”.
– The bureau where I came to work many years ago was of the zero category. And the zero category is increased salaries, – he revealed a terrible secret from the screen. – And such a bureau was the only one in the shipbuilding industry: the salaries of our employees were one and a half times higher than in other design bureaus. This is the price of secrecy, or, as we called it, “the price of fear.” Because the bureau was super secret, the strictest regime, special restrictions on rights. We could not get acquainted, have correspondence with foreign citizens. And not a word to anyone about what we do at work. There were specially invented legends and designations. We never called a reactor a reactor. It was a crystallizer. And instead of a submarine – Peregudov’s object, Chernyshev’s object. Do not even think of saying something like “extreme depth” or “high pressure air” outside the bureau. Because these terms betrayed belonging to the submarine fleet and revealed the essence of what we do. Until the last moment, we were a closed organization and had no right to speak in public, go to print, give interviews …
Designer Radiy Anatolyevich Shmakov is a living encyclopedia of submarine shipbuilding. Photo: Alexander Emelianenkov
The Shmakov brothers – Radium and Steel
In the Epiphany frosts of 1931 in Novosibirsk, young parents were expecting a boy and in advance came up with a name – Steel. And two were born at once. One, as planned, was named Steel, the other – Radium.
– In the early 30s, the country was rebuilt, everything old was swept aside, – many decades later, Radiy Anatolyevich Shmakov spoke about that time. – It was not Pushkin who was on the podium, but Mayakovsky. And those names that were given according to church documents seemed to young families not modern, instead they were looking for something new. Radium or Paradise is the sun god, radium means radiant. My parents are not chemists, normal Russian people. But they really wanted the name of their son to be immediately remembered. And to wear it was pleasant … Father was taken away in the 36th. And my mother – Anna Ivanovna Smyshlyaeva – lived a long time, she died in 1992. That is, practically all my life without a husband. But she believed, waited for him and hoped. And my brother and I inspired that he was somewhere busy with work. But in fact he was shot in the 38th year, that is, almost immediately. We found out about this only after rehabilitation …
Stal Anatolyevich Shmakov chose, unlike his brother, not a technical, but a humanitarian path. He graduated from the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical Institute in 1952 and until the last days of his life was engaged in teaching, the theory of education and the organization of youth leisure, the development of pedagogical foundations and the concept of collective creative activity of schoolchildren in their free time. According to the creative projects of S.A. Shmakov, the All-Russian pioneer camp of the Central Committee of the Komsomol “Orlyonok” (opened in 1961 and still operating) and the year-round pioneer camp of the Novolipetsk metallurgical plant “Prometheus” (1975) were created.
In honor of the brothers Radiy Anatolyevich and Stal Anatolyevich Shmakovs, a memorial plate was installed at the house in Novosibirsk, where they grew up (Surgutskaya St., 62, Zheleznodorozhny District – former Mazutnaya, 58).
Source: Российская Газета by rg.ru.
*The article has been translated based on the content of Российская Газета by rg.ru. If there is any problem regarding the content, copyright, please leave a report below the article. We will try to process as quickly as possible to protect the rights of the author. Thank you very much!
*We just want readers to access information more quickly and easily with other multilingual content, instead of information only available in a certain language.
*We always respect the copyright of the content of the author and always include the original link of the source article.If the author disagrees, just leave the report below the article, the article will be edited or deleted at the request of the author. Thanks very much! Best regards!