A livable house it should have adequate space, be connected and energy efficient. Regarding this last point, there are many residential contexts in which the energy performance and energy efficiency in homes do not even reach minimum performance levels.
In fact, we speak of energy poverty. According to the SEN, National energy strategy, “Energy poverty is defined as the difficulty of purchasing a minimum basket of energy goods and services”.
It can be said that a family is in energy poverty if it is unable to adequately heat its home, if it has difficulty paying bills or has a high incidence of energy expenditure on the family income.
The report drawn up in 2020 by OIPE, theItalian Observatory on Energy Poverty, indicates that in 2019 there were over 2.2 million families in energy poverty, equal to 8.5% of the total households.
Europe is the first with the Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the governance of the Energy Union and the member states, consequently, are implementing different policies to counter this problem. Specifically, Italy has equipped itself with the PNIEC, Integrated national energy and climate plan, with which it has set itself the goal of reducing energy poverty by 2030 in an interval between 7 and 8% of total households.
What are, then, solutions and technologies to fight energy poverty?
According to the OIPE, in Italy the policies and solutions to combat energy poverty are aimed at:
1. reduce energy expenditure;
2. improve energy efficiency;
3. provide subsidies.
The regulations, the tax breaks, i energy performance certificates and the energy tutor for companies.
L’Ecobonusin particular, it was the first tax deduction for the energy requalification of buildings, extended to families in energy poverty through the faculty of assigning credit for the incompetent and to autonomous institutes for public housing / social housing. In 2020 it is then introduced Super bonus which inherits the same principles of accessibility. All these concessions have been extended by the Budget Law 2022.
These initiatives have increased consumers’ awareness of the potential benefits of energy saving and have given the possibility of “accessing” this type of intervention, which has a high initial cost, even to small consumers.
As for the APE, the Energy Performance Certificates, ENEA in collaboration with the Italian Thermotechnical Committee (CTI), produces an annual Report on the Energy Certification of Buildings: from the one relating to 2020 it emerges that the energy efficiency of buildings has improved in the residential sector.
Another virtuous example is the energy communities from renewable sources and collective self-consumption.
As regards the technologies, it’s renewable energy sources (RES) to play a leading role on the issue of energy efficiency and improvement.
The growing incidence of renewables has contributed in recent years to the reduction of our country’s dependence on foreign supply sources, essentially consisting of oil, refined products and gas.
In the residential sector we can distinguish the:
– renewables for electricity generation: renewable electricity;
– renewables for thermal generation: thermal renewables.
In the electricity sector, renewable sources represent the infrastructure that will lead to the completion of the energy transition, that is the decarbonization process set for 2050.
The renewable solutions for the production of electricity include:
– the geothermal;
– l’wind power;
– the bioenergy;
– the photovoltaic;
According to the SEN, in 2050 renewables will cover over 85% ofgross final consumption of the electricity sector.
The renewable solutions in the heating and cooling sector include:
– the heat pumps;
– the biomass;
– the geothermal;
– the solar thermal.
A further possibility of efficient growth of the thermal sector is given by the exploitation of biomass for production in networks of district heating.
The heat pumps, gas, electric The hybrid, are experiencing, also thanks to the promotion tools available (Thermal account, Ecobonus and now Superbonus), an increase in installations. This can essentially be attributed to the high energy yields of the technology, which also allow economic savings in operation, as well as to the growing diffusion of heat pumps in the new construction sector, thanks to the need to respect the renewable energy quota set by law. As in building renovations, the greater diffusion of the heat pump is attributable to the possibility of replacing both the old air conditioners for cooling and the boilers with a single machine.
Source: Le ultime news dal mondo dell'edilizia by www.edilportale.com.
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