Scientific Foundations of Marxism (1922)

From two articles by Crexells (Barcelona, ​​1896-1926) a Advertising (21/23-VI-1922). Own translation. These days it is one hundred years since the publication of a series of journalistic pieces in which Crexells made an exegesis of the foundations of Marxism. Dissemination purpose of a young man formed according to the canon of enlightened Noucentisme: philosophy, law, Greek, economics.

Class struggle. Evolution is essentially the consequence of the evolution of the productive forces. The reflection of that evolution on historical facts, as well as the subjective form that evolution takes, is the class struggle. communist manifesto it says, “The history of every society to this day is the history of the class struggle.” What is a class? A class is a group of men determined for economic reasons with the same common interests and the same opposing interests. Marx does not always state with absolute clarity and without hesitation what a class is. […] But still, one can easily see what he means when he talks about current social classes. Social classes are formed by the fact of exploitation. In the present organization there are two fundamental classes: the proletariat, that is, the exploited, and the capitalists, that is, the exploiters. If there is no exploitation no classes are formed. For this reason primitive society had no classes, nor will the future communist society. Apart from these fundamental classes, there are remnants of classes from previous periods. The petty bourgeoisie is a class destined to disappear when most of its individuals fall into the proletariat and the others rise to the capitalist class. Historical materialism. We have already said that history is the history of the class struggle. The bourgeois class and the proletarian class are the ones currently fighting each other. The bourgeoisie has created the proletariat, which is its opposition, out of economic necessity. The course of things necessarily leads the proletariat to devour the bourgeoisie and by devouring the bourgeoisie, by suppressing private ownership of the means of production and, therefore, the cause of exploitation, the proletariat, at the same time annulling the class. enemy, it will also nullify any class distinction. Capital accumulation. This theory corresponds to an analysis of current events. It can be said that it is the nerve of the whole Marxist economy. For Marx, the value instead of something lies in the amount of work that is embedded in it. […] Marx explains this with the theory of capital gains. The worker puts his work up for sale. The capitalist acquires his labor and the right to the product of that labor. [..] The employer pays the worker his work with products – or money to buy products – equivalent to six hours of work and employs twelve. The six hours he doesn’t pay, says Marx, the boss puts in his pocket. […] The concentration of capital eliminates small industrialists. Whoever has only one loom is ruined by the competition of those who have many and can produce at a better price. The little one becomes one more worker. […] There are fewer and fewer capitalists and more workers. […] The accumulation of capital leads to the accumulation of misery. […] The bourgeoisie replaced the nobles; the proletariat will replace the bourgeoisie. It will be the last class struggle. This utopian socialism crowns the Marxist conception. […]

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