In crop production, land is a basic resource. However, in front of farmers, and especially in intensive crop production, the question arises: how to achieve the highest possible yields per unit area, without degrading the quality of the land? All this leads us to ask ourselves whether the modern way of cultivating the land by plowing is good. We asked this question to Bogdan Garalejić from the Agricultural Expert Advisory Service in Pancevo.
“If we are talking about the classic system of cultivation – plowing, it is very destructive for the land, as well as the uncontrolled use of NPK and nitrogen fertilizers, not to mention the use of plant protection products. They really degrade the land and influence it to become an impersonal and lifeless mass “, says Bogdan Garalejić from PSSS Pancevo.
They are in rehearsal compared the two fields: one that has not been plowed since 2006 and the other that has been plowed to this day. Each plot in the experiment was 1.2 hectares in size. The same maize hybrids, of the same density, were sown on both fields. They did not use NPK or nitrogen fertilizers. The harvest has come.
“On the field that was not cultivated, the yield was about 8.7 tons per hectare, and on plowing it was between 10-11 tons”, says Bogdan and points out that it rained that year, but if it had not fallen, plowing might have had a maximum of 6 , 5 tons, and without plowing about 5 tons.
“This means that, if there is sufficient rainfall, some inputs do not have to be expended in production“, Says Bogdan and advises farmers to, if they use mineral fertilizers, first determine the condition of the fields, to visit the plots and control the use of these inputs. Also, it is necessary to check how the crops react, what is happening. So, knowledge comes first, then control of what we have, because some things can only once to be done, then they can be expensive, but then there is only control.
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Bogdan explained it to us on a concrete example.
“When someone does a soil analysis and gets results, such as pH (whether the soil is acidic or basic, alkaline), they get the content of calcium carbonate, the content of humus, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Of these 6 elements, in the next 12 years, you will analyze only phosphorus and potassium“, States Bodan.
According to him, Soil pH does not change in 10-12 years neither with the use of fertilizers, nor with the content of calcium carbonate. A small change in humus occurs only in a minimum of 25 years.
Tillage without plowing it is not new and many farmers already apply this approach in agriculture. One of them is Čaba Bošoš from Adorjan, not far from Kanjiža, with whom we talked about this topic this summer. We asked him if it was possible to cultivate the land without plowing?
“Of course it can! AND we can achieve much better results than with plowing. We save a lot more on fuel, workers and depreciation “, reveals Čaba.
He also explained it to us briefly how does it look like theirs the process of producing field crops without plowing.
After “removing” the corn and corn, the seeder passes and the wheat is sown. With wheat, if they have to spray against weeds – they do it in late July-early August. In October, they thin the field once. In March, they throw an “expert”, once they go with the cleaner and sow corn again.
dipl. eng. Bogdan Garalejić, PSSS Pancevo
Čaba Bošoš, a farmer from Adorjan
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