The dairy farm is an organized unit for successful animal breeding. Organizing a farm means meeting the requirements of cows in the spirit of good agricultural practice.
It should be borne in mind that cows will spend a large part of their life on the farm, and that well-laid foundations in the organization of production are the path to success.
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Livestock is a very demanding job, but it can also be very profitable. As in any business, so in
livestock, it needs planning and of course resources.
For a start, the most ideal would be for the farmer to have his own land, preferably where water and electricity are available, certain facilities. This significantly reduces costs at the start of the organization of production.
Of course, the land should meet certain conditions: to be of satisfactory quality and size and to be surrounded by road infrastructure.
Facilities on a dairy farm
The main facilities on the farms if you want to raise cattle – dairy cows are stables.
The size of the object will depend on the planned number of heads.
Stables must have enough light, fresh air, adequate temperature, adequate humidity, sufficiently spacious and dry lying areas, a system for easy garbage removal, a space where food will be delivered.
It is necessary to make a barn without a ceiling, 2.5 meters high at the lowest part and 4 meters high at the highest.
The entrance to the building must be wide enough for the tractor and mixer trailer to move without difficulty.
The feeding hall must be in the middle part, free, so that the food that falls out of the manger can be returned in the easiest possible way.
It is very important that the cows always have enough fresh and clean water to drink. A semi-open system has also proven to be a good way to build facilities. This means that one whole side of the building is open, which we close in winter with bales of hay.
This system has proven to be good, because cows like as natural conditions as possible. Then they are healthier and longer lasting. This way of building a barn allows the host to save money.
On the farm, it is necessary to provide auxiliary facilities for storing fodder, equipment and
mechanization, as well as storage for storage and processing of milk, storage of dairy products, etc.
The equipment needed for a dairy farm is feeding, water and hygiene equipment, milking equipment, milk storage and processing. Other mechanization for the preparation and production of animal feed is equally important.
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A dairy farm with the appropriate breed
Choose the right race
Two breeds of dairy cows meet the needs of milk producers. These are the Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breeds.
This is the leading dairy breed in the world. The production capacity is between 8,000 and 10,000 liters of milk per year. If the growing conditions are favorable and the climate is warmer, they can give a larger amount of milk during the year.
It means good care, affordable accommodation and quality food. If they do not have optimal conditions, they are more susceptible to diseases, and they can be barren.
They have strong constitutions. The weight of a young cow is about 650 kg, and an adult animal about 750 kg. They have a well-developed udder, and in 95% of cows it is in the shape of a vessel.
This breed belongs to the group of cattle with combined production traits, which means that they are equal
they can grow both for meat production and for milk production. The most common breed of cattle is in Serbia.
It has excellent genetic potential for improving combined traits. It belongs to the larger breeds of cattle.
They have excellent acclimatization abilities, which is why it is spread all over the world.
The production capacity is up to 8,000 liters of milk per year.
The weight of the cows is from 550 kg to 750 kg, and the height of the ridge is from 125 cm to 150 cm.
Fattening abilities are high, the daily gain in fattening young calves is up to 450 kg, the meat is of very good quality.
Source: Bolja Zemlja by www.boljazemlja.com.
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