A recent post on the social network Facebook and the Russian Vkontakte captures a number of statements idealizing the historical period of the Soviet Union.
However, this is an attempt to fool internet users – most of these statements are not true.
Statement: The Soviet government was the first in the world to introduce an eight-hour working day.
Not true. Until the 19th century. start working hours were not standardized. The length of the working day was about 13-16 hours. In 1832 it was first claimed in France shorten working hours.
In 1919, the International 8-Hour Working Day Convention was adoptedratified by 25 states before World War II.
An 8-hour workday and a 6-day workday have been introduced on the European, American and Australian continents.
In many Asian countries, a 10-11 hour day is still valid.
XX a. In the 1930s International Labor Organization adopted a convention on the reduction of working hours to 40 hours per week (entered into force in Lithuania in 1995) and a recommendation that states should, as far as possible, seek to establish a 40-hour working week.
Statement: The USSR was the first in the world to grant paid leave.
Not true. “Paid leave for everyone” became a reality in 1936when the left – wing forces united on the People ‘s Front won the French parliamentary elections in May.
Among other things, it was planned to pay unemployment benefits, to increase wages in enterprises (on average by 12%), to shorten the working week from 48 to 40 hours, to introduce paid leave.
Statement: Graduates of vocational and higher education institutions were entitled to compulsory employment – they received appointments.
Missing context. Forced assignments to vocational schools or workplaces after graduation were of little pleasure.
One of the scariest things at the time was compulsory and optional referral to a vocational school.
This was due to the exams held in the eighth gradeafter which better – educated students continued their education at school and those with worse learning were referred to vocational schools.
During the Soviet era, engineers formed the largest group of specialists with higher education in the country.
In the publishing house of the Lithuanian Institute of History in 2019. issued by dr. Books by Saulius Grybkauskas and Rūta Grišinaitė “Engineers according to the plan: technical training and training of specialists in Lithuania in 1944–1990” written about the obligation to work.
The need to work outside Lithuania for three years frightened young people.
Until 1959. the most important higher education institutions were directly subordinated to the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, which drew up plans for the distribution of young specialists according to the needs of organizations throughout the Soviet Union.
According to the 1938 March 4 According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the VKP (b) adopted, the graduates of higher education institutions had to be allocated to future jobs 6 months before graduation.
Some graduates of KPIs were sent to workplaces far from Lithuania. Young people, of course, were dissatisfied with such employment, so they looked for ways to avoid this “exile”.
For example, KPI Communist Youth leaders have criticized graduates who evade, adhere to “bourgeois nationalism” and evade their “internationalist duty” by taking up appointments in other republics. “
Such a lack of “internationalist duty” to avoid being assigned to work outside the republic was characteristic of KPI graduates until the mid-1960s, when the USSR Ministry of Higher Education finally abandoned this practice and allowed young professionals to stay in Lithuania.
For example, in 1953, after the death of J. Stalin and the spread of rumors that graduates could work in Lithuania, many rushed to do so. However, the rector of KPI Kazimieras Baršauskas himself demanded that the organizations that employed the graduates revoke their decisions and that the graduates be sent to workplaces where the union plan for the distribution of young specialists provided for.
As can be seen from the KPI 1953. 315 students graduated and received appointments from as many as 88 specialists outside Lithuania.
Many young engineers assigned to work outside Lithuania tried to avoid working in other republics. For example, in the list of KPIs sent to the Council of Ministers of the LSSR that did not graduate to the “fraternal republics” that year, even 76 names, including the name of the engineer and later the famous historian Edvardas Gudavičius, who was appointed to work at the Kandalaksha Mechanical Plant in Murmansk Oblast.
Statement: The USSR was the first in the world to introduce free education – secondary and higher.
Not true. 1940–1954 tuition in the USSR, starting from the 8th grade, was paid.
1852 In the US state of Massachusetts the first law on compulsory primary education was adopted (Until 1918, this law was enacted in all states).
19th century a system of public schools has emerged, comprising eight years of primary education, four years of secondary education and two years of four or four years of higher education.
New York Townsend Harris In 1847, he founded the first free public institution of higher education – Free New York City Academy (today, New York City College). Children of the city’s poor and emigrants were able to gain free higher education here.
Photo by ausstellung-gulag.org/ Barracks of convicted teenagers in a camp in the Arkhangelsk region in 1945.
The statement: Nurseries and kindergartens were free.
Missing context. There were absolutely no places for free kindergartens and nurseries.
Their working hours were quite comfortable for working parents, ie 7-12am.
1947 There were 192 kindergartens in Lithuania, attended by about 7,500 children.
Although this measure of the law was applied to all families raising children without reservations, the more or less universal provision of nurseries and kindergartens in Lithuania was not implemented until the mid-1990s.
Kindergartens were constantly in short supply and the Soviet press did not hide this fact.
1947 In Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania, there were only 5 kindergartens with 260 beds.
Meanwhile, in the same year, 2349 mothers entitled to a lump-sum and monthly allowance after childbirth (ie single or large mothers with three or more children) were registered in Kaunas.
The situation has not changed since then. 1954 In the main newspaper of the Lithuanian Communist Party, Tiesa, it was written that kindergartens were hardly established in collective farms in the republic.
Statement: The apartments were free.
Missing context. The apartments are so did not transfer ownership of the “recipients”they could not be bought or sold, and the residents paid for the “free” apartments themselves – for many years receiving a much lower salarythan would have been obtained under normal market economy conditions.
The citizens of the USSR received only a small part of their real salary – only about a quarter, but in return they received from the state what they had been denied as free education, free medicine and free apartments.
Shortly after the Bolsheviks came to power, all real estate owned by the population was nationalized. Therefore, it can be said that the state gave the apartments, but it must be understood that they were previously taken away by the same state.
Russian historian, political scientist Dmitry Savin reveals what it really meant to “get a free apartment”.
“First of all, it should be emphasized that the USSR has never divided apartments throughout its life. Living space was allocated.
It could have been part of a communal apartment room, a dorm room. If lucky, there could be a separate apartment.
The norm of the living space allocated by the USSR was usually 8 sq. M. m per capita. This meant that 36 sq. M. m area could accommodate a family of 4, and this was normal.
People did not have the right to choose where they would live – they could only accept what was offered or refuse.
And in that queue, we had to wait for that living space after 10–15 years, ”the historian explained.
Statement: Medicine was free.
Missing context. After the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania in July 1944, the country felt the full “joy” of free medicine.
The collective farm offices and dispensaries started operating in the houses taken away from the Lithuanians.
More than 130,000 people were deported during operations Vesna, Priboj and Osen. people. The Soviets did not care about the health and lives of these people.
During the Soviet era, there was a great deal of fear of infections, syringes and other tools boiled thousands of times in hospitals, but even then there was a great opportunity to bring hepatitis B from a visit to a gynecologist or dentist.
Electricity in the USSR was considered for many diseases – from schizophrenia to insomnia – by treatment.
Medical technology was not working properly and there was a shortage of medical materials and medicines.
Insulin was bought by diabetics themselves. And seriously ill patients also bought painkillers – they were not reimbursed.
In Soviet times, people died not only from strokes, but also from diseases that are easily controlled and easily treated today – bronchitis, pancreatitis, asthma, angina or simple injury.
The publication was prepared in 15 minutes in collaboration with Facebookwhich aims to stop the spread of misleading news on the social network. More about the program and its rules – here.
Source: 15min.lt – suprasti akimirksniu | RSS by www.15min.lt.
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