Peppers require ideal soil preparation in greenhouses. It is necessary to cross the land several times with machines, in the case of long-term production at the same location, it is necessary to break the plow sole by undermining, ie a hard layer of soil that prevents water runoff. Pre-sowing preparation must be performed before transplanting, it is recommended to do it two to three times, with obligatory additional leveling of the soil surface. It is desirable to make a fine-grained, not powdery, soil structure for peppers. Paprika is the culture that comes first in the crop rotation.
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This means that it reacts well to fertilization with both organic and mineral fertilizers. According to the literature data with 10 t / ha of paprika fruit, it is: 40–60 kgN: 20 kgP: 50–80 kgK, which counts as kaliophilic plants. Many producers use manure, because paprika reacts well to its application. It, in fact, reacts to the mechanical composition of the soil, which is obtained by adding organic matter. On the other hand, there is a great danger, if the manure is not well burned, that fungal diseases will appear in the zone of the ground part of the tree. For that reason, it is recommended to use sterilized and pelleted organic fertilizer, which is mechanically dispersed after basic treatment in the amount of 150-250 g / m2. By the pre-sowing preparation itself, the granules are introduced into the surface layer of the soil.
Basic fertilization in the production of paprika is very important, because paprika has a root system well developed only in the surface layer of the soil. Fertilizers are based on soil analysis, but an average of 50–80 g / m2 of fertilizer of the formulation 6:12:24 is used. Since paprika is produced in greenhouses only with a drip system, top dressing is done with different, water-soluble fertilizers, at different stages of growth.
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Paprika is planted depending on the type and purpose of paprika at different distances. Large-fruited varieties are planted so that there are 3 plants / m2, ie 80 cm between rows, and 40 cm between plants in a row. On the other hand, small-fruited varieties are planted 4-5 plants / m2, ie. 80 cm row spacing, and 25–30 cm row spacing between plants. The number of plants can be regulated by additional pruning of the side branches.
During the production in greenhouses, we strive to get peppers as early as possible, so that determines the planting dates. There are several:
– The deadline is from February 10 to 20. This deadline means planting peppers in greenhouses that have additional heating. There are few such productions, but they are still represented;
– The second deadline is from March 10 to 20. This is the most common term for planting peppers in our conditions in greenhouses without heating. Although this is very early for paprika, the experience of recent years has shown that even such early planting can succeed well;
– III term is from 10. – 20.04. This deadline implies the existence of a crop in greenhouses (lettuce), which partly delayed the earlier planting of paprika. This deadline is significantly safer, especially in terms of the impact of low temperatures;
– IV deadline is from 10. – 20.07. This deadline has been significant in recent years because it provides fresh peppers until December. The paprika plant from this planting period is much stronger and more resistant to diseases and pests.
The most important measure for regulating the growth of the tree is pinching, ie. pruning the tree.
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In order to keep the pepper tree in an upright position, a supporting wire is placed on the construction of the greenhouse in the direction of providing rows. The wire should be at the highest possible point so that the tree is as high as possible (at least about 3m). After planting, the plants grow freely to the first place of branching. At that place of branching, two branches are left so that each plant is formed on two trees. This is the number
plants with 3 plants / m2 raises to 6 plants / m2. Pruning is continued by deciding on one branch at each subsequent knee and removing the other. This gives the appearance of a plant in the shape of the letter “V”. A separate support (rope) should be placed for each of the side branches. The ropes, each separately, are fixed to the supporting structure and there is no possibility of their loosening. When growing peppers with the system as a drop and with intensive fertilization, it is possible to grow without pruning.
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Irrigation should be performed in the morning, with the addition of the necessary nutrients. Depending on the growth phase, temperature and soil type, the amount of added water should range from 5–15 l / m / day. In cases when it is not a drip system, although it is very rare, the water temperature can be a very big problem. It is dangerous to water the paprika with cold water, because it can cause burns and flowers to fall. The best temperature for irrigation is 22–26 ° C.
Harvesting of hot peppers in the long rod type begins in 30 to 40 days from planting, while babura in 40-50 days from planting. The fruits are suitable for harvesting when they reach the shape, size and weight characteristic of the variety as well as the appropriate firmness of the flesh of the fruit. The fruits of hot peppers are harvested every 3 to 4 days, and the varieties of large-fruited peppers every 5 to 6 days. The fruits should be carefully torn off with the stalks. Harvesting should be done when the fruits are dried from the night moisture and before they are heated. After harvesting, the fruits should be left in the shade or shade. The yield of paprika in the babur type is achieved around 15–25 kg / m2, while in the case of hot 10–20 kg / m2 or 120–150 fruits per plant.
Source: Bolja Zemlja by www.boljazemlja.com.
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