Grape moth (Lobesia botrana)
Grape moth is becoming an increasingly important problem when it comes to protecting vines, and its presence is more intense in vineyards with poor ventilation due to planting density or high lushness.
The grape moth has 3 generations per year. It overwinters under the bark of the vine in the puppet stage. The first butterflies appear in late April or early May. During the day, they are difficult to spot because they are mostly on the bark of the vine or on the back of the leaves. They fly at dusk or early in the morning. After mating, the female lays her eggs individually on the inflorescence. After sawing, the caterpillars develop and damage the inflorescences. During that time, the vines also bloom, and the caterpillars make silk barriers with which they connect the flowers and feed inside them.
The second generation caterpillars develop on berries that are the size of a pea or larger, while the third generation develops on semi-ripe and ripe berries.
The presence of the grape moth, in addition to directly damaging the flowers and berries, creates a favorable site for infections and favors the spread of gray rot, caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea.
The best way to control the grape moth is to use chemical agents, which include economy and high efficiency. A preparation should be used to control the first generation Savanur EC, Imidan 50 WP, more ili Fastac® 10 EC, because they act quickly and thus prevent damage to the inflorescence before piercing the caterpillar into the berries.
Gray vine rot (Botrytis cinerea)
Grapevine rot is one of the most significant grapevine diseases. The first infections are most often realized in the phenophase of flowering, when the fungus inhabits the cluster on the fallen flower caps and remains in a latent state. From the hinge phase it passes into the parasitic phase and then leads to grape rot.
Weather conditions are crucial for the appearance of the disease – frequent precipitation during the period of grape ripening. The mass phenomenon occurs especially when, after a long dry period, there is a rainy period. In these conditions, there is a sudden pouring of berries, as a result of which they shoot and these places represent the place of pathogen penetration. Varieties of compacted grapes and thin skins are more sensitive.
A series of agro-technical measures can reduce the intensity of disease attacks: green pruning in the vineyard, which enables better ventilation of plantations and special removal of leaf mass in the grape zone about 15 days before harvest. Also, the control of the grape moth is important, because the damage from its diet is the place of entry of pathogens.
In addition to agro-technical measures, Agrosava’s expert service recommends that the protection of vines from gray rot be carried out through the mandatory application of fungicides, especially in years with frequent rainfall.
The first treatment is recommended in the phenophase of grapevine overblown, which reduces the presence of pathogens in the latent state, using fungicides Signum 1-1.5kg / ha. The second treatment is performed before closing the bunch, which is especially important for sensitive varieties, using fungicides Ciprodex 1.6 l / ha. The third and most important treatment is 25-30 days before harvest, mandatory if frequent rainfall is announced, using fungicides Teldor 1.5 l / ha.
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Source: Bolja Zemlja by www.boljazemlja.com.
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