Full of life Science

We were inaugurated at the beginning of the summer. We would settle in Ruissalo, Turku, in the shade of oaks. When we arrived in the yard of our home in the twilight of the evening, the view was creepy: the trees around the dilapidated villa were almost naked, and a few swirling, green larvae hovered down the leaves on the leaves of the leaves. Ghost castle and dead trees!

The oaks made new leaves, and I later learned that the phenomenon was repeated. The oak larvae in Ruissalo has been known since 1886. Since then, they have been every 5-7 years. In recent decades, the devastation may have lasted 2-3 summers instead of one.

The genus of oak has spread through the northern hemisphere, with hundreds of species. In Finland, natural oak grows (Quercus robur).

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The island of Ruissalo has the widest, uniform oak conditions in Finland. However, it is no longer difficult to find quality wood there. The best were overthrown in 1713-1721. The conqueror took hundreds of hulls for shipbuilding and piling in St. Petersburg.

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Ruissalo is one of the hardwood islands that spread along the coast from Vakka-Suomi to Uusimaa. Inland, only the Lohja region is rich in oaks. They are also growing in Åland.

The oak forests were the largest 4,000 to 7,000 years ago, when the climate was much warmer than it is today.

“The oak zone represents our most species-rich nature, which, however, is only a weak reflection of the abundance of the more southern regions – and at the same time the antiquity of our nature,” wrote the plant geographer Reino Kalliola in 1958. “Happy is the landowner on whose farms the ancient oak is still stretching its branches.”

Power trees have people’s names

“Finland’s largest oak tree has been felled,” headed Suomen Kuvalehti in 1952. In the newspaper image, three men lean on a mighty oak tree. They have three pounds of dynamite and 15 carrying bombs. The tree explodes into eight parts but does not fall. The work is completed with a chainsaw. The catch is 15 cubic meters and 20 tons of timber.

Taivassalo oak ends up with parquet floors. The giant was approximately seven meters in circumference and was thought to have sprouted in the late 17th century. However, the thickness does not tell the age of the wood. It is affected by many things, such as where to grow. The age of Ruissalo’s oldest oak tree has been confirmed by dendrochronological measurements: a sample of the tree has been drilled. Almost three hundred years old, the circumference of a vibrant individual is just under two meters.

Naturalist S. A. Forsius wrote in 1611 that the oak grows 300, thrives 300 and dies 300 years.

The Oldlist site on the Internet showcases the world’s oldest trees. According to it, a growing forest oak in Switzerland is approaching the age of a thousand years. Perhaps the oldest oak in Finland is Piikkiö’s Lyytikkylä oak barn. It is almost eight meters in circumference, which is the softest in Finland. Even in the previous year, the old man made a few leaves.

The tallest oaks in our country, more than 30 meters long, rise in Bromarv on the lands of Riilahti Manor. The most beautiful in the kingdom has been named the wide-leaved permafrost in Paavola on Lohjansaari.

Oak has been planted especially on the lands of mansions and parsonages.

Landscape trees may have a name. Kaarina’s Ala-Lemu has a major who died in the Great Northern War Ramsayn memorial oak. The oak pair of Karuna Paddaisten manor is named after the ancestors of the family. Gertrude and Ertmann was planted according to tradition in 1683. Also Bitzin oak on the lands of the Wijk manor in Kemiö bears the name of the lord of the manor who lived in the 17th century.

Jykevä Kalmi oak spreads its foliage in Turku’s Aura River. The Botanical Garden of the Academy of Turku used to be the site, and the oak has been named after the Academy’s Professor of Economics. Pehr Kalmin by.

In the 18th century, he directed his dissertation that the Nordic oak is in a class of its own in terms of resilience compared to the fast-growing individuals of the south – and thus an excellent shipbuilding tree.

The law protected load forests

The Swedish Land Act of 1608 states that every oak belongs to the crown. Over the centuries, the best trees from the local oak forests were felled for shipbuilding.

Selective felling shaped the inheritance of the oaks.

On the other hand, the often stubborn figure of forest oaks tells of grazing. Before, there were free-range cattle in the woods that nested seedlings in the same way as deer today. It did not help that the royal ordinances of 1664 called for the frequent work of pastors to be prevented under penalty of a fine:

“If ioku laugh at this doxens / that is, give those young trees catzomattomuse cutta poicki purda ia turmelda / wetäkön sacko iocaitze in front of a young tree in the 3rd marca colmi part / us / landowner and parish.”

The decree of 1734 prohibited the release of pigs into the load forest. The article was in force until the beginning of the 20th century. Authorities called for the cultivation of oak for shipbuilding, especially along waterways. According to an old Russian estimate, one sailing ship needs 4,000 oaks and also pine on the masts.

The peasants, in turn, destroyed the oaks because they were of no use to them. Today, it is difficult to discern whether an oak forest is a natural or a human achievement.

In 1762, a professor at the Academy of Turku was appointed plantation director in Finland, ie plantation director. Pehr Gadd. He wanted to promote the cultivation of oak, fruit trees, and all kinds of trees that were suitable as material for beautiful nickel work.

Today, oaks have been grown in the Tampere and Mikkeli regions. The species has also been planted as a park tree in Oulu. The northernmost oak tree in Finland throws in Inari, like a bush against the chimney wall.

The mushroom grinds mulch into the holes

I am making a wishful trip to Piikkiö’s vicarage. Pehr Kalm, a botanist and himself, lived there for a few years Carl von Linnen a student as well as a North American explorer. He established a garden and perhaps planted an oak tree, which is now the second most spectacular in Finland.

The other branch of the tree has fallen down. The sulfur dwarf ate the supporting structures, cell wall cellulose and hemicellulose. The fungus leaves a cracking, brown, lignin-containing wood behind. This brown bread forms a fluffy flour in the oak cavities with the leaf litter. Cinnamon brown mullet is valuable to nature. It hides a wide variety of bug life.

The broken dwarf is a parasite that seals the fate of the oak. The yellowish spores only bloom one summer. When they begin to appear on the trunks of oak, the decay of the heartwood is far away. Spores of young spores are eaten in the British Isles, among other places, where they are called chicken of the woods.

The glossy red bull’s tongue slowly decomposes the host wood and stains the wood it creates even reddish. In England, this kind of wood is appreciated by furniture carpenters.

The woodcock eats the roots of the oak and pushes its handsome, fluffy spore mother out from the base of the tree. It really resembles a chicken bird throwing its feathers on the ground.

The fungicide is always delighted when it enters the oak grove: other deciduous trees do not have as rich a variety of southern and very different fungal species as their partners. There are a dozen species of buckwheat that specialize in oak, and there are also several yellow fungi. The most delicious are oak delicacy, grove sourdough and pigeon sourdough.

With my husband, I measure the thickness of the still standing oak branch of the Piikkiö parsonage. The result is an impressive 4.9 meters. To commemorate Kalmi’s time, there is a cherry orchard in the yard, where thunderstorms appear. I picked up a piece of chalk stalk next to the house. Perhaps the professor himself has smoked tobacco on this very barrel. I hide the memory on the stone foot of the parsonage.

Our trip continues to Kemiö, the protected beach forest of Wijk Manor. In addition to the Bitz Memorial Oak, there are several of Finland’s thickest oaks.

Sour, said the worm in the press

Oaks can be seen along the forest road at Wijk Manor at an increasing pace. Eventually, the iron gates close the steep alley. A narrow road continues to the side of the manor to the edge of the forest. There are oaks on every side of the forest.

I don’t remember seeing so many freckles anywhere at once. The Korean crow is originally a species of European oak groves. Närhi loves acorns, which she diligently carries in her throat in her home forest. The bird hides them in the litter as winter food. A lone oak tree in a coniferous forest is the result of a plantation work.

The oak does not produce debris until the age of fifty. It blooms at the same time as the leaves burst. The flies ripen in September-October.

From the germinating strain, first a stump just pushes deep into the ground, then a sprout is born. Once in growth, the seedling stretches up to half a meter a year. For a homeowner, it may come as a surprise. It begins to darken the yard and, with its wide root system, absorbs the forces from the garden. The roots of the oak may even sting the foundations of the house.

The laughter of the nerds follows us as we descend into the open field behind which is the Wijk Nature Reserve. A few giant oaks stand out from the landscape. We step into the open forest, and at the same time the roe deer flees from its hiding place. The leaf mat is thick and soft. The leaves of last summer have not tasted microbes during the winter. The sour leaves of oak decay slowly.

In the spring, the sharp spears of the bows break a thick leaf mat. In the autumn, oak grits can be severely depleted by garlic. The scent comes from the modest mushroom and its mycelium: the oak leaf grove specializes in breaking down the oak leaves.

All evergreen oaks are hollow

The oaks in the Wijk Conservation Area may have been planted, as the forest was a managed park in the 18th and 19th centuries. There are also thick, straight-lined limes as well as maples and aspens. The rocks flowing into the sea have a patch of cloth and permafrost.

In the summer heat, the gentlemen have made small trips to the cool grove by the sea. Now the bulls in the manor are spending the summer in the old park.

The woodpecker flaps its wings behind a fallen oak. A pair of extract pigeons fly over the high canopy. The blue tit also reveals itself.

Sinitiainen is actually a species of Central European oak forests that has spread its habitat all the way to our country, wrote ornithologists Nils Fritzén and Rauno Tenovuo in 1954: “The prevalence of wintering and blue-tailed deer and many other birds in oak forests is due to the fact that oaks provide excellent nesting opportunities for all birds nesting in tree cavities.”

In old oak groves, up to half of the birds can be colopers. The cavities are cut by a fire tip, a conifer, a small stick and a gray stick, which thrives especially in oak forests. The ladders make a new nest hole for themselves every spring.

“Countless are the young boys who have first seen the light of day cut into a cavity in an oak tree,” say Fritzén and Tenovuo. They apricot whether the main nesting place for the monkeys is Ruissalo or Turku Cathedral.

Much of the oak in Wijk Park is rugged. Some have fallen to the ground, others are overthrown, plush mules on their sides.

Oaks begin to hollow at the age of 150-200 years. The cause is heartburn rot fungi. Oaks over 400 years old are all hollow. The cavities are a great delight for forest dwellers, in addition to birds and insects, even snakes, foxes and badgers.

Riitta Vauras
The author is a biologist and a freelance journalist.

You can read the full article in Science Nature issue 4/2022 or digilehdet.fiif you are a subscriber to a Sanoma magazine.

Source: Tiede by www.tiede.fi.

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