Diabetes complication investigation – you don’t miss it!

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Diabetes is a very insidious disease, because it often does not cause symptoms, and if it does, it is often too late and some kind of complication has developed. If you are one of the lucky ones whose high blood sugar level has not yet caused any serious problems, in that case it is very important to investigate the complication, because the sooner you start treating the problem, the better! Prof. Dr. László Barkai, the diabetes center’s diabetologist shared what complications can occur in the case of diabetes and how they can be detected and treated.

It is important to prevent and treat complications caused by diabetes

A blood sugar level that is higher than necessary has a negative effect on the body as a whole, and can therefore cause countless complications. After all, it has an influence on the blood vessels and nerves throughout the body, so it can cause a wide variety of problems. The disease constantly damages the body, so it is very important to properly control the glucose level (with lifestyle, medication, insulin treatment), and in addition, great emphasis must be placed on screening for complications and treating them as soon as possible.

Complications caused by diabetes

  • Retinopathy
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Leg ulcer
  • Cardiovascular problems (e.g. vasoconstriction, heart attack, embolism)

Complication investigation

Retinopathy: poor circulation can result in fundus changes, which in bad cases can even lead to blindness. At first it causes no symptoms, later the patient notices small black spots and his vision becomes blurred. The reason is that microaneurysms develop as a result of the weakening of the walls of the small blood vessels. The blood supply to the cells deteriorates, and fluid and blood can escape from the damaged vessel walls, and even new blood vessels can form – all of which affects the health of the retina. It is very important for diabetic patients to have a regular ophthalmological check-up with dilated pupils, because the changes can already be noticed when the retinopathy does not cause any special symptoms.

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Neuropathy: peripheral neuropathy is a disease of the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, and is a very common problem among diabetics (it can be detected in approximately 70 percent of diabetics). It most often develops on the lower limbs, during which the patient complains of loss of sensation, numbness, weakness, tingling, and burning sensation. A possible consequence is a diabetic foot, during which the chance of leg ulcers increases considerably, which can be blamed for the majority of leg amputations. The Neuropad test (examination of sweat secretion) plays a major role in its diagnostics, the reflexes are checked, the sensation of vibration is checked with the Rydel-Seifert calibrated tuning fork test, the protective sensory function is checked with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, and the sensation of heat is checked with the so-called We test it with the Tip Therm test.

Nephropathy: diabetes also has a negative effect on kidney function, so its damage is common (occurs in about 40 percent of diabetics). If the patient’s blood pressure is high, the chance is even greater, and hypertension can also be a symptom of nephropathy. Since the filtering function of the kidneys is impaired at this time, protein is released into the urine. The condition has 5 stages, depending on how impaired kidney function is. Unfortunately, it does not cause symptoms at first, so it is often diagnosed late, and in the worst case, the patient is forced to undergo dialysis. If it already causes complaints, fatigue, edema, weight loss, malaise, anemia, later nausea, dizziness, and toxic symptoms appear due to the accumulation of toxins. The quantitative determination of urine protein is suitable for the screening and diagnosis of kidney complications. Metformin is not recommended in certain stages of kidney disease, then the patient must switch to insulin, and in addition to the diabetic diet, a kidney-friendly diet must be followed (of course, in addition to taking medications for kidney damage).

Cardiovascular problems: high glucose levels also have a negative effect on the vascular system, so cardiovascular complications must also be expected. It is common when vasoconstriction develops, but diabetes patients can also suffer from thrombosis and embolism, warns Prof. Dr. László Barkai, diabetologist at the Diabetes Center. Arteriosclerosis is screened with duplex ultrasound, vascular staining with contrast material, and arteriography, and the condition of the heart is examined with an EKG, possibly with an ultrasound of the heart. In addition, it may be worthwhile to take part in a 24-hour blood pressure measurement.

Source: Diabetes center

Source: Patika Magazin Online by www.patikamagazin.hu.

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