Several nasal sprays against COVID are currently being tested that can activate mucosal immune protection.
Researchers have been working for some time to protect against coronavirus not only with vaccination but also with nasal spray. One reason for this is that although vaccines are still able to protect a person from serious complications, they cannot completely prevent the infection. According to experts, this may be due in part to the location of vaccines, so they are working on a different solution, reports Hvg.
There are several arguments in favor of a nasal vaccine: according to experts, on the one hand, it is easier to administer than vaccination, and on the other hand, it is the place where a person has a good chance of first contact with the pathogen. Scientific American reports that eight such nasal sprays are currently being developed and three are already in the triple phase of clinical trials – meaning they are being tested in a large number of groups of volunteers.
The advantage of a nasal spray may be its ability to activate the protective effect of the mucosa. Vaccines are usually not able to do this, although the mucous membrane may be able to stop the virus before it becomes more serious, relying on special cells and antibodies.
Akiko Iwasaki, according to a researcher at Yale University, we are facing a different kind of epidemic today than in 2020, and if we want to stop its spread, the immune defense of the mucosa may be the most appropriate tool for this.
The spray contains the spike protein of the coronavirus, which reaches the mucous membranes in the form of drops. But there is also a solution that delivers the virus gene into the body with the destroyed adenovirus. The results are encouraging. In 2021, scientists compared AstraZeneca’s vaccine and nasal spray against coronavirus in hamsters, and found that the latter had higher levels of antibodies against the pathogen in the body.
However, it is important to note that the development of such nasal sprays is complicated because those skilled in the art are even less familiar with the immune function of the mucosa. The results are accordingly mixed: there was already a company that stopped testing because of the disappointing results, while Codagenix his team said the artificially attenuated coronavirus they used had developed very strong immune defenses. This is because the genetically modified pathogen shows not only the spike proteins but all the proteins to the immune system, so antibodies are also produced in the body against them.
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Source: Napidoktor by napidoktor.hu.
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