The participants in the COP26 World Climate Summit in Scotland will once again face the old question – whether the world can unite and face global warming together, as a common enemy, before it is too late.

Due to the topics themselves, the talks starting on October 31 in Glasgow have long been known to be difficult, but the two-week summit came under additional pressure due to the corona virus pandemic, the economic crisis it caused and the latest global energy problems.

There are five main topics that the participants of the summit in Glasgow will deal with, reminds the AP agency.

The first is the promise of rich countries that they will allocate 100 billion dollars annually for poor countries so that they can cope with climate change. The rich did not fulfill that promise in 2020, and estimates show that in 2019, the poor countries also received slightly less than 80 billion dollars.

Failure to fulfill the promises made by the rich for the first time in 2009 caused deep dissatisfaction and mistrust of poor countries, and some threatened to block all agreements until that promise is fulfilled.

There is no agreed formula for how much a developed country should contribute to the sum of 100 billion or how. However, the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Washington calculated that only a few rich countries, including France, Japan, Norway, Germany and Sweden, gave what could be called fair, while the US, Australia and Canada did not meet your share.

One of the proposed solutions that will be on the agenda in Glasgow is that from 2021 to 2025, the agreed amount of 100 billion will be paid, and that the amount that was not settled in previous years will be compensated later.

It is also expected that underdeveloped countries will put pressure on the summit to use half of that promised money for climate change adaptation projects. At the moment, most of the amount goes to reducing emissions.

Poorer countries also insist that it is time to talk about who will pay for the damage they have from rising sea levels, the spread of deserts and extreme weather events.

Another important topic at the summit is the issue that was not resolved at the climate summit in Paris in 2015, and that is the issue of the rules of global trade in carbon emissions, which is considered one of the key instruments to engage market players in the fight against climate change.

Negotiations in Madrid two years ago did not succeed in finalizing those rules set out in the Paris Climate Agreement, so negotiators will try to do so in Glasgow.

On one side of the table will be countries seeking stricter rules to prevent worthless vouchers for carbon dioxide emissions from flooding the market, and on the other side less developed countries insisting on recognizing previously mass-produced emission permits.

The establishment of a single global market for emissions trading is also an opportunity to obtain money through transaction taxes that can be used to fight climate change, but there is still no agreement on who would manage that market and taxes and how.

An important issue at the summit will be transparency in the fight against climate change, since the principle of voluntary climate agreements from Paris has led countries to look closely at what other countries are doing and what progress is being made before deciding to set more ambitious climate goals.

Related to this issue are the time frames for setting new targets in reducing pollution. Existing agreements require developed countries to raise the scale of climate goals every five years, and some countries require that every year, at least until the world is well on its way to meeting the Paris climate goals.

The Glasgow summit will also discuss methane, a gas that is a major component of natural gas and a by-product of certain agricultural activities, and which was not the subject of earlier negotiations. Methane is also a greenhouse gas and acts about twenty times stronger than carbon dioxide, but it survives in the atmosphere for about a decade.

A small but noticeable improvement in the fight against harmful emissions would be achieved by preventing methane leaks from the gas pipeline and from the field for the exploitation of natural gas.

Finally, on the table in Glasgow, there will be a proposal to reduce harmful emissions by 45% by 2030 compared to the 2010 level. It is not a matter of topics that will be negotiated, but a proposal whose adoption is expected so that the summit in the UN can be called successful.

Experts believe that halving emissions in the next decade is a key precondition for achieving zero emissions by 2050, which, according to science, is the only way to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees by the end of the century, according to with the Paris Agreement.

E2 portal (Euractiv)

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