According to the information compiled by AA reporter from sources, Abdülhamid, whose father is Sultan Abdülmecid and his mother is Tirimüjgan Kadınefendi, was born on September 21, 1842 in Istanbul.
While Abdulhamid lost his mother from tuberculosis when he was 10 years old, his father Sultan Abdulmecid passed away in 1861 at the age of 38.
After the statesmen and administrators who wanted to establish a constitutional administration deposed Sultan Abdulaziz and Murad 5, Abdulhamid II ascended the throne as the 34th Ottoman sultan on 31 August 1876.
Shortly after he took office, Kanun-i Esasi, the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire, was declared on December 23, 1876.
When Sultan Abdulhamid II came to the throne, he faced many problems outside as well as inside. When the London Protocol, which included the proposals of the Russians on March 31, 1877, was discussed in the parliament and rejected at the request of Sultan Abdulhamid II, Russia officially declared war on the Ottoman Empire on April 24, 1877 (93 War).
The successes of Gazi Osman Pasha in Pleven and Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha in the east could not stop the general course of the war, and the Turkish armies began to withdraw from the fronts. After them, tens of thousands of Muslim-Turkish immigrants had to migrate to Istanbul and Anatolia.
Sultan Abdulhamid II, who disagreed with the Parliament, suspended the Parliament indefinitely on 13 February 1878, based on the authority given to him by the constitution. However, he did not make any statements that he gave up the constitution and the constitution.
At the end of the war, the Ayastefanos Treaty was signed with Russia on March 3, 1878.
– HAFİYE TEŞKİLATI
With the Treaty of Berlin signed on 13 July 1878, it was accepted to pay a heavy war compensation against Russia, as much land was lost.
Sultan Abdülhamid established a strong detention organization after the situation of the state and the 1st and 2nd Çırağan incidents.
The difficulties he faced in foreign policy and especially the fact that foreign states caused some incidents at home, prompted the sultan to implement a strict regime.
– DÜYUN-U UMUMİYE
Believing that the state needs time to recover, Abdulhamid II avoided wars that constituted a heavy burden. Sultan Abdulhamid II, who prioritized clearing the foreign debts he took over from the previous sultans in the economic field, signed an agreement with the representatives of the European creditors on 20 December 1881. With this agreement called the Muharrem Decree, the creditor countries were given the privilege to establish Düyun-u Umumiye to collect certain state revenues.
Trying to strengthen his ties with the Islamic world and making this a fundamental policy, Abdulhamid II extended the Haydarpaşa-Izmit railway line to Ankara in 1888 with the support he received from Germany. In 1902, he agreed with the Germans for the construction of the line that would connect Ankara with Baghdad.
The most successful aspect of Abdulhamid II was foreign policy. The main purpose in foreign policy was to ensure the peace of the empire. 2. Abdulhamid did not benefit from the interests and conflicting ambitions of European states on Turkey. For this reason, his foreign policy changed as new conditions emerged in relations between states. It did not enter into continuous agreement with any state. He embarked on various diplomatic activities in order to separate the great states from each other as much as possible.
– THE MOST USER OF HALİFELİK ADAPH IS PADİŞAH
Abdulhamid II used the title of caliphate the most among the Ottoman sultans. By sending religious scholars to countries as far away as South Africa and Japan, he worked for the spread of Islam there and fought against colonialist states. He had the Hejaz railway built from Damascus to Mecca.
One of the important issues that Sultan Abdulhamid II insisted and partially achieved success was the Palestine issue. Zionists, who wanted to establish a Jewish state in Palestine, applied to Abdulhamid II and declared that they would clear the state’s foreign debts. The Sultan did not accept these money offers and took some precautions to prevent Jews from coming and settling in Palestine in various ways.
After the events in the Balkans, Turkish officers forced the sultan to declare Kanun-i Esasi. Abdulhamid II declared that he put the constitution into force again on 23 July 1908.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire invaded Bosnia-Herzegovina on October 5, 1908, to prevent it from being sent to the Ottoman Parliament. On the same day, Bulgaria declared its independence. A day later, Crete announced that it was united with Greece.
According to the Rumi calendar, an uprising broke out in Istanbul on 31 March (13 April 1909). The events in Istanbul continued bloody 11 days. The uprising was suppressed after the Army of Action from Thessaloniki entered Istanbul on the night of April 23-24, 1909.
Abdulhamid II refused to accept the proposals made to oppose the loyal First Army and the Army of Action, saying that he was the caliph of the Muslims and that he could not break the Muslim against the Muslim.
On April 27, 1909, the Meclis-i Umumi-i Milli, headed by Said Pasha, decided to end the caliphate and sultanate of Abdulhamid II. The parliamentary delegation consisting of a Turkish, an Armenian, a Jew and an Albanian went to Yıldız Palace and notified Sultan Abdulhamid that he was dethroned.
On the night of his dethronement, Sultan Abdulhamid II was taken to Thessaloniki by a special train from Sirkeci with 38 members of the family and officials.
Placed in the Alatini Mansion in Thessaloniki, Abdulhamid II was brought to Istanbul and settled in Beylerbeyi Palace when the enemy forces approached Thessaloniki, where he spent the last years of his life.
The funeral of Abdulhamid II, who passed away on Sunday, February 10, 1918, was held in Divanyolu II. He was buried in Mahmud Tomb.
– IMPORTANT STEPS IN EDUCATION, HEALTH AND MILITARY FIELDS
During the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II, important steps were taken in the fields of education, public works and agriculture. Between the years of 1876-1908, the number of primary schools was increased from 200 to 4-5 thousand, junior schools to 10 thousand, junior high schools from 250 to 600, high school students from 5 to 104, and the number of today’s high school, Darülmuallim, to 32. In addition, he opened many vocational colleges in agriculture, finance, law, baytar, trade, agriculture and many more.
The real diversification of sports branches, turning it into a social entertainment culture and learning about them scientifically took place during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II. In addition, the three biggest teams of Turkish football, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Beşiktaş, were also founded during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid.
2. Abdulhamid also prepared a very valuable collection of albums containing important photographs of various cities of the empire, especially Istanbul.
Haydarpaşa Medicine and Şişli Etfal Hospital, which he built with his own money, and Darülaceze, where he met some of his expenses from his personal pocket, were among the important steps he took in the fields of health and social assistance.
Chambers of commerce, agriculture and industry were also opened during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II. Horse-drawn and electric trams and regular docks were built in various cities. Telegram lines were drawn up to Hejaz and Basra. He built clock towers in many cities to commemorate the 25th anniversary of his ascent to the throne.
During the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II, the number of military high schools and high schools was increased. The army was equipped with new weapons. Important steps have also been taken in the field of law. Criminal and commercial procedure laws were enacted. Police organization was reorganized according to Western examples.
Abdulhamid II, who also liked western music, opera and theater, cut the expenses of the palace to the maximum and lived a simple life away from the palace life.
Source: STAR.COM.TR by www.star.com.tr.
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