Winter has already begun in the peaks in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, and it may know bad for the eastern field moles there.
The summer, on the other hand, probably went locally. There are no competing mole species on the islands, and the tundra reeds fertilized by seabirds provide more than enough to eat, especially during the warm season. The only beast that could chase the mole here is the fox, and that too focuses instead on the nests.
The worst enemies of the moles are the winter rains. When frozen after that, the ground can be covered in ice armor, which prevents herbivores from gaining access to their food. Freezing rains happen most winters, and the more abundant they are, the smaller the mole population will collapse. In this way, the only rhythm of the mole population visible under these conditions is formed, say Canadian and Norwegian researchers on the basis of 12 years of monitoring. Pnas-in leaf.
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The moles came to the Svalbard in secret
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Elsewhere, mole populations behave quite differently. The difference reveals how important regulators beasts are.
Mole populations in Finland and the northern regions in general usually grow and shrink in waves that recur over 3 to 5 years. At the north, the waves tend to be the longest. The shrinkage is driven by an increase in moth-eating beasts, such as owls and woodpeckers, but the intense population of moles is also reduced by competition, parasites and diseases, weather conditions, and food shortages. This has been difficult to investigate because many factors contribute simultaneously. So now the Svalbard is breaking the knot.
Since the mole has virtually no natural enemies there, only the effect of mole density, food, and weather became apparent. No perennial cycles formed in the mole stock at all. Peak Mountains became a unique population ecological research laboratory by chance. It has been concluded that the eastern field moles arrived there as smugglers of Russian ships in the first half of the 20th century.
Source: Tiede by www.tiede.fi.
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