Lucia was shot. Like Ana Maria and Sónia. Vera was beaten. Like Carla or Esther. Ana Paula was strangled. Camila, Abertina and Marina died stabbed. All of these names are victims of domestic violence. They were all killed. There is also the story of a family in which practically all women were victims of abuse – 331, practiced by three men. And the pandemic, the Minister of Justice has already admitted, created conditions for the increase in cases of domestic violence and sexual abuse. Only part of the stories reach the newspapers and even the courts. These are some real examples of those who have been victims of physical or sexual aggression.
According to Eurostat and the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, in 2012 around 330 thousand women experienced aggression (considering that the female population in that year was 5,515,578). This is one of the data released by Pordata this Monday, which marks the International Women’s Day.
Even so, 6% is below the European Union average, which stands at 8%. However, if you look at each member state, in countries Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Sweden they reach 11%. At the opposite pole, with 3% is Slovenia.
“One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda is Gender Equality and this is precisely the motto for selecting a set of statistical highlights that show the differences between men and women in different areas of society such as the population, education and work ”, says Pordata in the report sent to newsrooms.
More men are born but women live longer
In Portugal, for every 100 babies of the female gender, 106 are born of the male gender (data are from INE and referring to 2019). However, as age advances, the superiority of the number of women increases. “There are more women than men from the age group of 25 to 29 years old. In total, for every 100 women there are 89 men, ”the report reads.
Both genders have benefited from the increase in the quality of life, which translates into an average of years lived higher either at the time of birth or when they reach 65. “Between 1970 and 2018, the gains were about 15 years at birth and from 6 to 7 years old at 65 years old. Whether at birth or at 65, life expectancy is higher in women (at birth the difference is 6 years and at 65 years is 4 years). ”
In Europe, they are also more and live longer. Only in Slovenia, Luxembourg, Malta and Sweden do men make up the largest share of the population.
Higher education but less employment
The issue of schooling still leaves Portugal “looking bad in photography: Portugal is the country with the lowest percentage of men with at least secondary education and, in the case of women, only Malta has a lower figure”. Even so, in recent years, more women have completed secondary education than men and the gender gap in this indicator has widened. “In 2019, this figure rises to 56.1% among women and to 47% among men”, it can be read.
Women also became the majority in terms of higher and advanced training: last year 214,731 women and 182,178 men enrolled in universities. In the end, they are the ones who complete the study cycle more than they do: they represent about 58% of graduates in 2019.
Despite greater training, this does not necessarily translate into better employment conditions. On the contrary: in this category they are always above. “The employment rate of men has been higher than that of women, although the difference between genders has registered a reduction until 2012, the year after which it was fixed at around 7 percentage points. In the last 5 years, Portugal is among the 14 countries in the EU27 that have seen this difference in the employment rate between men and women widen. ”
About 1 ⁄ 4 of Portuguese women inactive in Portugal in 2019 were in this situation due to “family responsibilities”, a reason that at the beginning of the century was invoked by almost 40% of cases. “In contrast, this justification never exceeded 4% among inactive men.”
And there are still professions where women typically do not enter: this is the case with police and higher education teachers. On the opposite side, pre-school educators and primary and secondary school teachers are seen as typically female jobs.
Finally, motherhood. Today, more and more children arrive before the wedding (a contract that often doesn’t even happen). In fact, since 2015, the births of babies to unmarried women are the majority. Still, in 2019, in more than 2/3 (67.5%) of these cases, parents cohabit. However, the overwhelming majority of adults who live alone with children are women. In other words, in households composed of only one adult, it is almost always the mother who is present,
Having children without marrying is not the norm in Europe: in 2018 among the 24 countries with available data, only in eight did the majority of women who were mothers not be married. “France leads this reality: six out of ten mothers are not married. Conversely, in Greece, only 1 in 10 mothers are not married. ”
Source: Expresso by expresso.pt.
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