While the Parliamentary Research Commission offered 157 solutions to the mucilage problem in the Marmara Sea, it was stated that reducing the nitrogen-phosphorus load of the Marmara Sea should be a priority measure by subjecting all domestic and industrial waste water to advanced biological treatment.
All domestic and industrial wastewater should be subjected to advanced biological treatment, water recovery should be provided in treatment plants, reducing the nitrogen-phosphorus load of the Marmara Sea should be a priority measure.
In the report prepared after 4 months of work by the Parliamentary Research Commission, which was established to investigate the causes of the mucilage problem in the seas, especially in the Marmara Sea, and to determine the measures to be taken, the problems were identified and solutions were offered.
According to the report submitted to the Presidency of the Assembly, as a result of the increase in the amount of nutrient salt in the Sea of Marmara, biological production in surface waters increased and the thickness of the luminous layer decreased. This situation, over time, caused the loss of most of the oxygen in the deep waters of the Marmara Sea and faced with dangers such as oxygen deficiency that seriously threatened the ecosystem.
With the current studies, it has been determined that the oxygen concentration in the deep waters of Marmara has decreased to the level of 7.3 micrometers.
In the report, it was stated that 76.53 percent of the pollution in Marmara originates from Istanbul, followed by Kocaeli and Bursa, respectively.
Pointing out that the Sea of Marmara has been under the pressure of intense environmental problems for the last 40 years, it was stated in the report that the increasing population in the region, intense urbanization and pollution caused by industrial wastes caused the treatment facilities to be insufficient. It has been noted that the direct or insufficient treatment of domestic and industrial wastes into the sea and the increase in organic loads as a result of activities such as tourism, shipping and agriculture make the Sea of Marmara eutrophic.
In the report, which stated that environmental problems and the increasing impact of climate change in recent years have put pressure on marine ecosystems, caused a decrease in biodiversity and threatened marine life, the report states that the organic accumulation in the discharge of wastes to the sea exceeds the carrying capacity, the increase in sea water temperatures as a result of climate change and the limitation of stagnant sea conditions to water exchange. It was pointed out that formations such as plankton explosions triggered by formations such as these are starting to be observed more frequently.
As a result of these changes in the marine ecosystem, the report explains that mucilage formation was observed for the first time in the Marmara Sea in 2007, but its effect remained relatively limited. It was stated that it was started to be monitored again in the period.
In the report, it was emphasized that the mucilage, which emerged in the autumn of 2020 in the Sea of Marmara and increased especially in the spring of 2021, reached an alarming level.
Advice on control, prevention and effects of mucilage
In the report, 157 recommendations were listed under 17 main headings on the control, prevention and effects of mucilage.
In the report, which stated that the basic principles in wastewater management should be “minimum pollution” and “maximum recovery”, it was recommended to expand the use of treated domestic wastewater in industry, park, garden and green field irrigation.
In the report, it was emphasized that industrial sectors with high potential to cause environmental pollution should be encouraged to be brought together in specialized organized industrial zones. requested for use.
In the report, which underlined the need to eliminate the negative effects of the cooling waters of thermal power plants on the seas, especially the Marmara Sea, it was requested to implement the necessary incentives for the dissemination of two-phase systems that will realize waste water reduction in order to prevent pollution from olive land water.
In the report of the Parliamentary Research Commission, it was recommended as a priority measure to subject all domestic and industrial wastewater to advanced biological treatment, to ensure water recovery in treatment plants, and thus to reduce the nitrogen-phosphorus load of the Marmara Sea.
In the report, it was stated that the wastewater costs collected by the municipalities should be transferred to a special account in the municipal budget and used only for the construction and operation of the treatment plants, and it was stated that if the relevant institution does not have sufficient and suitable space for the construction of the wastewater treatment plant, land should be allocated from the treasury lands.
In the report, there was a proposal to make the studies carried out in cooperation with riparian countries more efficient and effective on the determination of the pollution effect of all rivers flowing into the Black Sea, especially the Danube.
In the report, it was stated that an economic structure should be established in which the principles of “user pays” and “polluter pays” are reflected for the protection of water resources, and accordingly, it was requested to determine tariffs based on full cost for water and wastewater prices.
“Solid wastes should be sent to the landfill”
Some of the other recommendations in the report, which noted that a new waste management policy should be established for the Sea of Marmara, taking into account climate change with a holistic approach, are as follows:
– All irregular storage facilities in the Marmara Sea Basin should be closed after rehabilitation and all solid wastes generated in the basin should be sent to the landfill facilities after recycling.
– Inspections should be tightened in order to prevent the illicit discharge of wastes such as bilge water and polluted ballast from marine vehicles, and the entire Sea of Marmara should be inspected from the air by aircraft and other aircraft.
– Arrangements should be made to prevent the discharge of waste water from ships into the Sea of Marmara and should be implemented as soon as possible.
– The use of remote sensing, satellite and early warning systems, unmanned aerial vehicles and radar systems should be increased in inspections in the Marmara Sea Basin.
– According to satellite data, instant monitoring system data and laboratory results, excessive algae growth and mucilage formation should be monitored, and necessary measures should be taken within this framework.
– Minimizing the effects of sea fill and coastal structures on the natural structure and “meeting water with sand” should be the basic principle.
– Companies that make environmentally friendly production, implement zero waste projects, build and operate advanced biological wastewater treatment plants and use gray water should be rewarded.
– In order to reduce phosphorus pollution caused by detergents and personal hygiene products, the use of cleaning materials containing phosphorus and surfactant should be gradually reduced, and legislative arrangements should be made for the production of phosphorus-free products.
– The use of environmentally labeled products in cleaning materials should be expanded, a website and social media account should be opened to announce environmentally labeled products.
– Environment-themed activities should be organized in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change and the Ministry of National Education.
– Training should be given and programs should be made to train volunteer environmental detectives.
– Environmental management issues should be added to the education curriculum.
– First of all, the biodiversity of the Marmara Sea, from bacteria to mammals, should be defined and recorded. By comparing the data obtained here and historical data, local and foreign species should be determined, the potential of foreign species to be invasive should be investigated, and new alien species should be identified quickly by carrying out regular monitoring studies covering all living groups.
– Necessary measures should be taken to prevent plastic and micro-plastic pollution, which negatively affects sea creatures and those who consume them due to the food chain.
– Regulations should be made to limit the production of fishery products other than human food, in order to reduce fishing pressure by bringing additional regulations to fishing activities in the Sea of Marmara.
– In order to contribute to the improvement of water quality in the Sea of Marmara, suitable places for mussel farming should be determined and its capacity should be increased.
– The survival of endangered and protected species such as sturgeon, sea salmon, great shark, propeller fish, oily fish, sea horse, seagrass, corals, red star, sea sponge, sea turtle, dolphin and Mediterranean seal Studies should be increased for their safe protection and reproduction by improving breeding and breeding areas.
Source: Dünya Gazetesi by www.dunya.com.
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